Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Identification of specificity‐defining amino acids of the wheat immune receptor Pm2 and powdery mildew effector AvrPm2


Manser, Beatrice; Koller, Teresa; Praz, Coraline Rosalie; Roulin, Anne C; Zbinden, Helen; Arora, Sanu; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Wulff, Brande B H; Keller, Beat; Sánchez‐Martín, Javier (2021). Identification of specificity‐defining amino acids of the wheat immune receptor Pm2 and powdery mildew effector AvrPm2. The Plant Journal, 106(4):993-1007.

Abstract

Plant nucleotide‐binding leucine‐rich repeat receptors (NLRs) act as intracellular sensors for pathogen‐derived effector proteins and trigger an immune response, frequently resulting in the hypersensitive cell death response (HR) of the infected host cell. The wheat (Triticum aestivum) NLR Pm2 confers resistance against the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) if the isolate contains the specific RNase‐like effector AvrPm2. We identified and isolated seven new Pm2 alleles (Pm2e–i) in the wheat D‐genome ancestor Aegilops tauschii and two new natural AvrPm2 haplotypes from Bgt. Upon transient co‐expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we observed a variant‐specific HR of the Pm2 variants Pm2a and Pm2i towards AvrPm2 or its homolog from the AvrPm2 effector family, BgtE‐5843, respectively. Through the introduction of naturally occurring non‐synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms and structure‐guided mutations, we identified single amino acids in both the wheat NLR Pm2 and the fungal effector proteins AvrPm2 and BgtE‐5843 responsible for the variant‐specific HR of the Pm2 variants. Exchanging these amino acids led to a modified HR of the Pm2–AvrPm2 interaction and allowed the identification of the effector head epitope, a 20‐amino‐acid long unit of AvrPm2 involved in the HR. Swapping of the AvrPm2 head epitope to the non‐HR‐triggering AvrPm2 family member BgtE‐5846 led to gain of a HR by Pm2a. Our study presents a molecular approach to identify crucial effector surface structures involved in the HR and demonstrates that natural and induced diversity in an immune receptor and its corresponding effectors can provide the basis for understanding and modifying NLR–effector specificity.

Abstract

Plant nucleotide‐binding leucine‐rich repeat receptors (NLRs) act as intracellular sensors for pathogen‐derived effector proteins and trigger an immune response, frequently resulting in the hypersensitive cell death response (HR) of the infected host cell. The wheat (Triticum aestivum) NLR Pm2 confers resistance against the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) if the isolate contains the specific RNase‐like effector AvrPm2. We identified and isolated seven new Pm2 alleles (Pm2e–i) in the wheat D‐genome ancestor Aegilops tauschii and two new natural AvrPm2 haplotypes from Bgt. Upon transient co‐expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we observed a variant‐specific HR of the Pm2 variants Pm2a and Pm2i towards AvrPm2 or its homolog from the AvrPm2 effector family, BgtE‐5843, respectively. Through the introduction of naturally occurring non‐synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms and structure‐guided mutations, we identified single amino acids in both the wheat NLR Pm2 and the fungal effector proteins AvrPm2 and BgtE‐5843 responsible for the variant‐specific HR of the Pm2 variants. Exchanging these amino acids led to a modified HR of the Pm2–AvrPm2 interaction and allowed the identification of the effector head epitope, a 20‐amino‐acid long unit of AvrPm2 involved in the HR. Swapping of the AvrPm2 head epitope to the non‐HR‐triggering AvrPm2 family member BgtE‐5846 led to gain of a HR by Pm2a. Our study presents a molecular approach to identify crucial effector surface structures involved in the HR and demonstrates that natural and induced diversity in an immune receptor and its corresponding effectors can provide the basis for understanding and modifying NLR–effector specificity.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
18 citations in Web of Science®
18 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

91 downloads since deposited on 19 May 2021
31 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
08 Research Priority Programs > Evolution in Action: From Genomes to Ecosystems
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Genetics
Life Sciences > Plant Science
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Plant Science, Genetics, Cell Biology
Language:English
Date:1 May 2021
Deposited On:19 May 2021 14:00
Last Modified:24 Feb 2024 02:50
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0960-7412
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15214
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID310030B_182833
  • : Project TitleMolecular analysis of disease resistance specificity in cereals