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Epidemiologic, Phenotypic, and Structural Characterization of Aminoglycoside-Resistance Gene aac(3)-IV


Plattner, Michel; Gysin, Marina; Haldimann, Klara; Becker, Katja; Hobbie, Sven N (2020). Epidemiologic, Phenotypic, and Structural Characterization of Aminoglycoside-Resistance Gene aac(3)-IV. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(17):6133.

Abstract

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are powerful bactericidal therapeutics that are often used in the treatment of critical Gram-negative systemic infections. The emergence and global spread of antibiotic resistance, however, has compromised the clinical utility of aminoglycosides to an extent similar to that found for all other antibiotic-drug classes. Apramycin, a drug candidate currently in clinical development, was suggested as a next-generation aminoglycoside antibiotic with minimal cross-resistance to all other standard-of-care aminoglycosides. Here, we analyzed 591,140 pathogen genomes deposited in the NCBI National Database of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms (NDARO) for annotations of apramycin-resistance genes, and compared them to the genotypic prevalence of carbapenem resistance and 16S-rRNA methyltransferase (RMTase) genes. The 3-N-acetyltransferase gene aac(3)-IV was found to be the only apramycin-resistance gene of clinical relevance, at an average prevalence of 0.7%, which was four-fold lower than that of RMTase genes. In the important subpopulation of carbapenemase-positive isolates, aac(3)-IV was nine-fold less prevalent than RMTase genes. The phenotypic profiling of selected clinical isolates and recombinant strains expressing the aac(3)-IV gene confirmed resistance to not only apramycin, but also gentamicin, tobramycin, and paromomycin. Probing the structure-activity relationship of such substrate promiscuity by site-directed mutagenesis of the aminoglycoside-binding pocket in the acetyltransferase AAC(3)-IV revealed the molecular contacts to His124, Glu185, and Asp187 to be equally critical in binding to apramycin and gentamicin, whereas Asp67 was found to be a discriminating contact. Our findings suggest that aminoglycoside cross-resistance to apramycin in clinical isolates is limited to the substrate promiscuity of a single gene, rendering apramycin best-in-class for the coverage of carbapenem- and aminoglycoside-resistant bacterial infections.

Abstract

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are powerful bactericidal therapeutics that are often used in the treatment of critical Gram-negative systemic infections. The emergence and global spread of antibiotic resistance, however, has compromised the clinical utility of aminoglycosides to an extent similar to that found for all other antibiotic-drug classes. Apramycin, a drug candidate currently in clinical development, was suggested as a next-generation aminoglycoside antibiotic with minimal cross-resistance to all other standard-of-care aminoglycosides. Here, we analyzed 591,140 pathogen genomes deposited in the NCBI National Database of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms (NDARO) for annotations of apramycin-resistance genes, and compared them to the genotypic prevalence of carbapenem resistance and 16S-rRNA methyltransferase (RMTase) genes. The 3-N-acetyltransferase gene aac(3)-IV was found to be the only apramycin-resistance gene of clinical relevance, at an average prevalence of 0.7%, which was four-fold lower than that of RMTase genes. In the important subpopulation of carbapenemase-positive isolates, aac(3)-IV was nine-fold less prevalent than RMTase genes. The phenotypic profiling of selected clinical isolates and recombinant strains expressing the aac(3)-IV gene confirmed resistance to not only apramycin, but also gentamicin, tobramycin, and paromomycin. Probing the structure-activity relationship of such substrate promiscuity by site-directed mutagenesis of the aminoglycoside-binding pocket in the acetyltransferase AAC(3)-IV revealed the molecular contacts to His124, Glu185, and Asp187 to be equally critical in binding to apramycin and gentamicin, whereas Asp67 was found to be a discriminating contact. Our findings suggest that aminoglycoside cross-resistance to apramycin in clinical isolates is limited to the substrate promiscuity of a single gene, rendering apramycin best-in-class for the coverage of carbapenem- and aminoglycoside-resistant bacterial infections.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Microbiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Catalysis
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Physical Sciences > Spectroscopy
Physical Sciences > Computer Science Applications
Physical Sciences > Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Organic Chemistry
Physical Sciences > Inorganic Chemistry
Language:English
Date:25 August 2020
Deposited On:08 Jun 2021 15:54
Last Modified:14 Jun 2024 03:30
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1422-0067
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176133
PubMed ID:32854436
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)