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Occurrence of Echinococcusgranulosussensulato and other Taeniids in Bhutan


Abstract

The present research shows the results of a national study documenting the occurrence and genetic diversity of Echinococcus and Taenia species across Bhutan. Environmental dog faecal samples (n = 953) were collected from 2016 to 2018 in all 20 Bhutanese districts, mainly in urbanised areas. Cystic echinococcosis cysts were isolated from 13 humans and one mithun (Bos frontalis). Isolation of taeniid eggs from faeces was performed by sieving/flotation technique, followed by DNA isolation, PCR and sequence analyses for species identification (gene target: small subunit of ribosomal RNA). Genetic diversity of E. granulosuss.s. was based on the sequence (1609 bp) of the cox1 gene. A total of 67 out of 953 (7%) dog faecal samples were positive for at least one taeniid species. From the 670 free-roaming dog faecal samples, 40 (5.9%) were positive for taeniid DNA, 22 (3.2%) of them were identified as E. granulosuss.s. and four (0.5%) as E. ortleppi (G5). From the 283 faecal samples originating from yak-grazing areas, 27 (9.5%) were taeniid positive, including eight (2.8%) infected with E. granulosuss.s. and four (1.4%) with E. ortleppi. E. granulosuss.s. was identified in all isolates from human and the cyst from mithun. A haplotype network (cox1 gene) from E. granulosuss.s, including isolates from 12 dogs, two human and one mithun, revealed eight different haplotypes. The most common cox1 haplotype was the globally distributed Eg01, followed by Eg40 and Eg37 (previously described in China). Five new cox1 haplotypes (EgBhu1–5) originated from human, dogs, and a mithun were identified. The study indicated the contamination of urban areas and pastures with Echinococcus eggs in seven districts in Bhutan. The molecular characterisation of E. granulosuss.l. revealed different E. granulosuss.s. haplotypes as well as E. ortleppi. The transmission of T. multiceps was documented only in the western part of the country. Considering the zoonotic feature of E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi and the economic impact of coenurosis caused by T. multiceps (also known as gid) in Bhutan, the findings of this study represent a significant contribution towards an epidemiological baseline for the establishment of a national control programme.

Abstract

The present research shows the results of a national study documenting the occurrence and genetic diversity of Echinococcus and Taenia species across Bhutan. Environmental dog faecal samples (n = 953) were collected from 2016 to 2018 in all 20 Bhutanese districts, mainly in urbanised areas. Cystic echinococcosis cysts were isolated from 13 humans and one mithun (Bos frontalis). Isolation of taeniid eggs from faeces was performed by sieving/flotation technique, followed by DNA isolation, PCR and sequence analyses for species identification (gene target: small subunit of ribosomal RNA). Genetic diversity of E. granulosuss.s. was based on the sequence (1609 bp) of the cox1 gene. A total of 67 out of 953 (7%) dog faecal samples were positive for at least one taeniid species. From the 670 free-roaming dog faecal samples, 40 (5.9%) were positive for taeniid DNA, 22 (3.2%) of them were identified as E. granulosuss.s. and four (0.5%) as E. ortleppi (G5). From the 283 faecal samples originating from yak-grazing areas, 27 (9.5%) were taeniid positive, including eight (2.8%) infected with E. granulosuss.s. and four (1.4%) with E. ortleppi. E. granulosuss.s. was identified in all isolates from human and the cyst from mithun. A haplotype network (cox1 gene) from E. granulosuss.s, including isolates from 12 dogs, two human and one mithun, revealed eight different haplotypes. The most common cox1 haplotype was the globally distributed Eg01, followed by Eg40 and Eg37 (previously described in China). Five new cox1 haplotypes (EgBhu1–5) originated from human, dogs, and a mithun were identified. The study indicated the contamination of urban areas and pastures with Echinococcus eggs in seven districts in Bhutan. The molecular characterisation of E. granulosuss.l. revealed different E. granulosuss.s. haplotypes as well as E. ortleppi. The transmission of T. multiceps was documented only in the western part of the country. Considering the zoonotic feature of E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi and the economic impact of coenurosis caused by T. multiceps (also known as gid) in Bhutan, the findings of this study represent a significant contribution towards an epidemiological baseline for the establishment of a national control programme.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > General Immunology and Microbiology
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:March 2021
Deposited On:18 Jun 2021 06:59
Last Modified:25 Jun 2024 01:40
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2076-0817
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030330
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)