Urinary incontinence (UI) is a major problem in health care and more than 400 million people worldwide suffer from involuntary loss of urine. With an increase in the aging population, UI is likely to become even more prominent over the next decades and the economic burden is substantial. Among the different subtypes of UI, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most prevalent and focus of this review. The main underlying causes for SUI are pregnancy and childbirth, accidents with direct trauma to the pelvis or medical treatments that affect the pelvic floor, such as surgery or irradiation. Conservative approaches for the treatment of SUI are pelvic physiotherapy, behavioral and lifestyle changes, and the use of pessaries. Current surgical treatment options include slings, colposuspensions, bulking agents and artificial urinary sphincters. These treatments have limitations with effectiveness and bear the risk of long-term side effects. Furthermore, surgical options do not treat the underlying pathophysiological causes of SUI. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative treatments, which are effective, minimally invasive and have only a limited risk for adverse effects. Regenerative medicine is an emerging field, focusing on the repair, replacement or regeneration of human tissues and organs using precursor cells and their components. This article critically reviews recent advances in the therapeutic strategies for the management of SUI and outlines future possibilities and challenges.