Superconductivity in a crystalline lattice without inversion is subject to complex spin-orbit-coupling effects, which can lead to mixed-parity pairing and an unusual magnetic response. In this study, the properties of a layered superconductor with alternating Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the stacking of layers, hence (globally) possessing a center of inversion, is analyzed in an applied magnetic field, using a generalized Ginzburg-Landau model. The superconducting order parameter consists of an even- and an odd-parity pairing component which exchange their roles as dominant pairing channel upon increasing the magnetic field. This leads to an unusual kink feature in the upper critical field and a first-order phase transition within the mixed phase. We investigate various signatures of this internal phase transition. The physics we discuss here could explain the recently found H−T phase diagram of the heavy-fermion superconductor CeRh2As2.