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Association between environmental and climatic risk factors and the spatial distribution of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan


Paternoster, Giulia; Boo, Gianluca; Flury, Roman; Raimkulov, Kursanbek M; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Bondarenko, Maksym; Müllhaupt, Beat; Deplazes, Peter; Furrer, Reinhard; Torgerson, Paul R (2021). Association between environmental and climatic risk factors and the spatial distribution of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 15(6):e0009498.

Abstract

Background: Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (CE and AE) are neglected tropical diseases caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and E. multilocularis, and are emerging zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan. In this country, the spatial distribution of CE and AE surgical incidence in 2014-2016 showed marked heterogeneity across communities, suggesting the presence of ecological determinants underlying CE and AE distributions.
Methodology/Principal findings: For this reason, in this study we assessed potential associations between community-level confirmed primary CE (no.=2359) or AE (no.=546) cases in 2014-2016 in Kyrgyzstan and environmental and climatic variables derived from satellite-remote sensing datasets using conditional autoregressive models. We also mapped CE and AE relative risk. The number of AE cases was negatively associated with 10-year lag mean annual temperature. Although this time lag should not be considered as an exact measurement but with associated uncertainty, it is consistent with the estimated 10–15-year latency following AE infection. No associations were detected for CE. We also identified several communities at risk for CE or AE where no disease cases were reported in the study period.
Conclusions/Significance: Our findings support the hypothesis that CE is linked to an anthropogenic cycle and is less affected by environmental risk factors compared to AE, which is believed to result from spillover from a wild life cycle. As CE was not affected by factors we investigated, hence control should not have a geographical focus. In contrast, AE risk areas identified in this study without reported AE cases should be targeted for active disease surveillance in humans. This active surveillance would confirm or exclude AE transmission which might not be reported with the present passive surveillance system. These areas should also be targeted for ecological investigations in the animal hosts.

Abstract

Background: Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (CE and AE) are neglected tropical diseases caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and E. multilocularis, and are emerging zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan. In this country, the spatial distribution of CE and AE surgical incidence in 2014-2016 showed marked heterogeneity across communities, suggesting the presence of ecological determinants underlying CE and AE distributions.
Methodology/Principal findings: For this reason, in this study we assessed potential associations between community-level confirmed primary CE (no.=2359) or AE (no.=546) cases in 2014-2016 in Kyrgyzstan and environmental and climatic variables derived from satellite-remote sensing datasets using conditional autoregressive models. We also mapped CE and AE relative risk. The number of AE cases was negatively associated with 10-year lag mean annual temperature. Although this time lag should not be considered as an exact measurement but with associated uncertainty, it is consistent with the estimated 10–15-year latency following AE infection. No associations were detected for CE. We also identified several communities at risk for CE or AE where no disease cases were reported in the study period.
Conclusions/Significance: Our findings support the hypothesis that CE is linked to an anthropogenic cycle and is less affected by environmental risk factors compared to AE, which is believed to result from spillover from a wild life cycle. As CE was not affected by factors we investigated, hence control should not have a geographical focus. In contrast, AE risk areas identified in this study without reported AE cases should be targeted for active disease surveillance in humans. This active surveillance would confirm or exclude AE transmission which might not be reported with the present passive surveillance system. These areas should also be targeted for ecological investigations in the animal hosts.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology

07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Mathematics
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Chair in Veterinary Epidemiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:23 June 2021
Deposited On:12 Jul 2021 12:06
Last Modified:25 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1935-2727
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009498
PubMed ID:34161356
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID31003A_173131
  • : Project TitleTransmission modelling of emergent echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID200021_175529
  • : Project TitleDisentangling evidence from huge multivariate space-time data from the earth sciences
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)