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Evaluation of oral fluids for surveillance of foodborne and zoonotic pathogens in pig farms


Schott, Franziska; Hoffmann, Karolin; Sarno, Eleonora; Bangerter, Patrick Daniel; Stephan, Roger; Overesch, Gudrun; Hässig, Michael; Sidler, Xaver; Graage, Robert (2021). Evaluation of oral fluids for surveillance of foodborne and zoonotic pathogens in pig farms. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 33(4):655-663.

Abstract

The use of oral fluid (OF) to detect zoonotic pathogens in pigs has been only scarcely assessed. We evaluated OF as a potential specimen for detection by culture of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Yersinia enterocolitica, and the detection of antibodies against Salmonella spp. and hepatitis E virus (HEV) using commercial ELISAs. Samples from 33 pig farms were collected at the beginning and end of the fattening period. Results of the OF samples were compared with the results of serum samples and nasal swabs from individual pigs and pen floor fecal samples, using the Cohen kappa (κ) and the McNemar test. For Salmonella spp. antibodies, OF samples were negative, although the corresponding serum samples were positive. The detection of HEV antibodies in sera and OF had agreement at the first sampling, and poor and significant agreement at the second sampling (κ = 0.185, McNemar p = 0.238; κ = 0.088, McNemar p < 0.001). At both sampling times, the detection of MRSA in nasal swabs and OF showed agreement (κ = 0.466, McNemar p = 0.077; κ = 0.603, McNemar p = 1); agreement was seen for the detection of Y. enterocolitica in fecal and OF samples (κ = 0.012, McNemar p = 0.868; κ = 0.082, McNemar p = 0.061, respectively). According to the McNemar test, the use of pen-based OFs is more feasible for the detection of MRSA and Y. enterocolitica by culture than is detection of antibodies by commercial ELISA.

Abstract

The use of oral fluid (OF) to detect zoonotic pathogens in pigs has been only scarcely assessed. We evaluated OF as a potential specimen for detection by culture of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Yersinia enterocolitica, and the detection of antibodies against Salmonella spp. and hepatitis E virus (HEV) using commercial ELISAs. Samples from 33 pig farms were collected at the beginning and end of the fattening period. Results of the OF samples were compared with the results of serum samples and nasal swabs from individual pigs and pen floor fecal samples, using the Cohen kappa (κ) and the McNemar test. For Salmonella spp. antibodies, OF samples were negative, although the corresponding serum samples were positive. The detection of HEV antibodies in sera and OF had agreement at the first sampling, and poor and significant agreement at the second sampling (κ = 0.185, McNemar p = 0.238; κ = 0.088, McNemar p < 0.001). At both sampling times, the detection of MRSA in nasal swabs and OF showed agreement (κ = 0.466, McNemar p = 0.077; κ = 0.603, McNemar p = 1); agreement was seen for the detection of Y. enterocolitica in fecal and OF samples (κ = 0.012, McNemar p = 0.868; κ = 0.082, McNemar p = 0.061, respectively). According to the McNemar test, the use of pen-based OFs is more feasible for the detection of MRSA and Y. enterocolitica by culture than is detection of antibodies by commercial ELISA.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Food Safety and Hygiene
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Veterinary
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Veterinary
Language:English
Date:1 July 2021
Deposited On:20 Jul 2021 07:44
Last Modified:25 Feb 2024 02:40
Publisher:Sage Publications
ISSN:1040-6387
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/10406387211021599
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)