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Including the Spiritual Dimension in Multimodal Pain Therapy. Development and Validation of the Spiritual Distress and Resources Questionnaire (SDRQ)


Peng-Keller, Simon; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Hasenfratz, Karin; Naef, Rahel; Rettke, Horst; Hefti, René; Ljutow, André; Rittmeyer, Isabelle; Sprott, Haiko; Rufer, Michael (2021). Including the Spiritual Dimension in Multimodal Pain Therapy. Development and Validation of the Spiritual Distress and Resources Questionnaire (SDRQ). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 62(4):747-756.

Abstract

Context
Valid instruments for assessing spiritual resources and distress in pain therapy are scarce. The Spiritual Distress and Resources Questionnaire (SDRQ) was developed to fill this gap.

Goals
The objective of this study was to investigate the SDRQ's psychometric properties.

Methods
We presented the SDRQ to 219 patients with chronic pain conditions and examined its measurement properties, namely reliability and structural, convergent and discriminant validity. To investigate test–retest reliability, the SDRQ was presented a second time to a subsample of 58 randomly selected participants.

Results
Factor analysis required a grouping of the 22 SDRQ items into four subscales: spiritual distress, spiritual coping, immanence and transcendence, the latter two representing spiritual resources. Cronbach's alpha was high for spiritual distress (0.93), transcendence (0.85), and immanence (0.81) while it was somewhat lower but still satisfactory for spiritual coping (0.70). The construct validity of the SDRQ was shown by correlations with established measures in the field. Higher levels of spiritual distress were associated with signs of more severe illness, such as emotional distress and pain intensity.

Conclusion
The results from this study suggest that the SDRQ is an easy-to-use, reliable and valid screening instrument for assessing spiritual distress, spiritual resources and spiritual coping in patients with chronic pain. The SDRQ has the potential to be used with patients suffering from other chronic diseases and to disseminate the palliative approach to pain treatment to other areas of medicine.

Abstract

Context
Valid instruments for assessing spiritual resources and distress in pain therapy are scarce. The Spiritual Distress and Resources Questionnaire (SDRQ) was developed to fill this gap.

Goals
The objective of this study was to investigate the SDRQ's psychometric properties.

Methods
We presented the SDRQ to 219 patients with chronic pain conditions and examined its measurement properties, namely reliability and structural, convergent and discriminant validity. To investigate test–retest reliability, the SDRQ was presented a second time to a subsample of 58 randomly selected participants.

Results
Factor analysis required a grouping of the 22 SDRQ items into four subscales: spiritual distress, spiritual coping, immanence and transcendence, the latter two representing spiritual resources. Cronbach's alpha was high for spiritual distress (0.93), transcendence (0.85), and immanence (0.81) while it was somewhat lower but still satisfactory for spiritual coping (0.70). The construct validity of the SDRQ was shown by correlations with established measures in the field. Higher levels of spiritual distress were associated with signs of more severe illness, such as emotional distress and pain intensity.

Conclusion
The results from this study suggest that the SDRQ is an easy-to-use, reliable and valid screening instrument for assessing spiritual distress, spiritual resources and spiritual coping in patients with chronic pain. The SDRQ has the potential to be used with patients suffering from other chronic diseases and to disseminate the palliative approach to pain treatment to other areas of medicine.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Klinik für Konsiliarpsychiatrie und Psychosomatik
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Nursing
Health Sciences > Neurology (clinical)
Health Sciences > Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Uncontrolled Keywords:Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, General Nursing, Clinical Neurology
Language:English
Date:1 October 2021
Deposited On:27 Jul 2021 07:33
Last Modified:30 Sep 2021 01:06
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0885-3924
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2021.02.021
PubMed ID:33631326

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