In the early stage of nerve lesions, the clinical differentiation between neurapraxia, axonotmesis and neurotmesis often presents a big challenge. Especially in the early stage, however, it is crucial to correctly classify the type of damage because this is what essentially determines the therapeutic concept, in particular the surgical approach and, therefore, the prognosis. A precise diagnosis not only requires detailed clinical assessment and medical history taking, but also the use of additional electrophysiological (functional) and/or imaging examinations. Electrophysiological diagnostic tests may provide information ion localization, severity, course, type of damage and incipient or past reinnervation. Preoperative functional diagnostic measures should include neurography, needle electromyography (EMG) and, if needed, evoked potentials (EP), while imaging procedures should include neural sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a complimentary procedure, EMG may also be performed during surgery.