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Prediction of Early Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Using FDG-PET/CT in Melanoma Patients


Kudura, Ken; Dimitriou, Florentia; Basler, Lucas; Förster, Robert; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Kutzker, Tim; Dummer, Reinhard; Mangana, Joanna; Burger, Irene A; Kreissl, Michael C (2021). Prediction of Early Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Using FDG-PET/CT in Melanoma Patients. Cancers, 13(15):3830.

Abstract

We aimed to investigate, whether $^{18}$F-2-fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans performed at baseline (time point 0; TP 0) and three months after initiation of immunotherapy (time point 1; TP 1) can be used on a metastasis- and patient-level to predict the response to immune-checkpoint inhibition using FDG-PET/CT six months after treatment start (time point 2; TP 2) in metastatic melanoma patients. This single-center retrospective study considered metastatic melanoma patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibition from TP 0 to TP 2. An analysis on a metastasis- and patient-level was carried out. Tumor volume, standardized uptake values SUV (mean, maximum, and peak), metabolic tumor volume MTV and total lesion glycolysis TLG of each included metastasis were recorded at each time point, respectively TP 0, TP 1 and TP 2. Total tumor volume, total metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis per patient were also calculated at TP 0, TP 1 and TP 2. Treatment response was assessed at metastasis- and patient-level based on FDG-PET/CT scans at TP 2. 612 melanoma metastases in 111 patients were included. The analysis on a metastasis-level showed that metastatic SUVpeak at TP 1 and volume variation between TP 0 and TP 1 were the strongest negative predictive biomarkers for response. However, at TP 0, metastatic SUVmean and SUVpeak indicated a low negative prediction power, whereas initial metastatic volume was not a predictive biomarker. Also, melanoma metastases located in bone structures had a negative influence on the outcome at TP 2, particularly in women. The analysis on a patient-level showed, that total tumor volume, total metastatic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis of all metastases three months after treatment initiation were strong negative predictive biomarkers for response to immunotherapy six months after initiation. Age and female sex were also found to be negative predictive biomarkers with lower predictive power. Interestingly, total tumor volume at TP 0 and number of metastases at TP 0 as well as the occurrence of early immune-related adverse events between TP 0 and TP 2 did not have any predictive value for early treatment response. FDG-PET/CT performed for treatment response assessment three months after initiation of immune checkpoint inhibition in metastatic melanoma patients can also be used to predict early response to treatment. On a metastasis-level SUV peak and volume variation of metastases are strong outcome predictive biomarkers. On a patient-level total tumor volume and semiquantitative parameters such as total metabolic tumor volume MTV and total lesion glycolysis TLG of all metastases are promising outcome predictive biomarkers. Also, early complete response on a metastasis- and patient-level seems to be predictive for lasting complete response.

Abstract

We aimed to investigate, whether $^{18}$F-2-fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans performed at baseline (time point 0; TP 0) and three months after initiation of immunotherapy (time point 1; TP 1) can be used on a metastasis- and patient-level to predict the response to immune-checkpoint inhibition using FDG-PET/CT six months after treatment start (time point 2; TP 2) in metastatic melanoma patients. This single-center retrospective study considered metastatic melanoma patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibition from TP 0 to TP 2. An analysis on a metastasis- and patient-level was carried out. Tumor volume, standardized uptake values SUV (mean, maximum, and peak), metabolic tumor volume MTV and total lesion glycolysis TLG of each included metastasis were recorded at each time point, respectively TP 0, TP 1 and TP 2. Total tumor volume, total metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis per patient were also calculated at TP 0, TP 1 and TP 2. Treatment response was assessed at metastasis- and patient-level based on FDG-PET/CT scans at TP 2. 612 melanoma metastases in 111 patients were included. The analysis on a metastasis-level showed that metastatic SUVpeak at TP 1 and volume variation between TP 0 and TP 1 were the strongest negative predictive biomarkers for response. However, at TP 0, metastatic SUVmean and SUVpeak indicated a low negative prediction power, whereas initial metastatic volume was not a predictive biomarker. Also, melanoma metastases located in bone structures had a negative influence on the outcome at TP 2, particularly in women. The analysis on a patient-level showed, that total tumor volume, total metastatic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis of all metastases three months after treatment initiation were strong negative predictive biomarkers for response to immunotherapy six months after initiation. Age and female sex were also found to be negative predictive biomarkers with lower predictive power. Interestingly, total tumor volume at TP 0 and number of metastases at TP 0 as well as the occurrence of early immune-related adverse events between TP 0 and TP 2 did not have any predictive value for early treatment response. FDG-PET/CT performed for treatment response assessment three months after initiation of immune checkpoint inhibition in metastatic melanoma patients can also be used to predict early response to treatment. On a metastasis-level SUV peak and volume variation of metastases are strong outcome predictive biomarkers. On a patient-level total tumor volume and semiquantitative parameters such as total metabolic tumor volume MTV and total lesion glycolysis TLG of all metastases are promising outcome predictive biomarkers. Also, early complete response on a metastasis- and patient-level seems to be predictive for lasting complete response.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nuclear Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Oncology
Life Sciences > Cancer Research
Language:English
Date:29 July 2021
Deposited On:26 Aug 2021 16:50
Last Modified:26 Mar 2024 02:38
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2072-6694
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153830
PubMed ID:34359730
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)