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Biomolecular condensates at sites of DNA damage: More than just a phase


Spegg, Vincent; Altmeyer, Matthias (2021). Biomolecular condensates at sites of DNA damage: More than just a phase. DNA repair, 106:103179.

Abstract

Protein recruitment to DNA break sites is an integral part of the DNA damage response (DDR). Elucidation of the hierarchy and temporal order with which DNA damage sensors as well as repair and signaling factors assemble around chromosome breaks has painted a complex picture of tightly regulated macromolecular interactions that build specialized compartments to facilitate repair and maintenance of genome integrity. While many of the underlying interactions, e.g. between repair factors and damage-induced histone marks, can be explained by lock-and-key or induced fit binding models assuming fixed stoichiometries, structurally less well defined interactions, such as the highly dynamic multivalent interactions implicated in phase separation, also participate in the formation of multi-protein assemblies in response to genotoxic stress. Although much remains to be learned about these types of cooperative and highly dynamic interactions and their functional roles, the rapidly growing interest in material properties of biomolecular condensates and in concepts from polymer chemistry and soft matter physics to understand biological processes at different scales holds great promises. Here, we discuss nuclear condensates in the context of genome integrity maintenance, highlighting the cooperative potential between clustered stoichiometric binding and phase separation. Rather than viewing them as opposing scenarios, their combined effects can balance structural specificity with favorable physicochemical properties relevant for the regulation and function of multilayered nuclear condensates.

Abstract

Protein recruitment to DNA break sites is an integral part of the DNA damage response (DDR). Elucidation of the hierarchy and temporal order with which DNA damage sensors as well as repair and signaling factors assemble around chromosome breaks has painted a complex picture of tightly regulated macromolecular interactions that build specialized compartments to facilitate repair and maintenance of genome integrity. While many of the underlying interactions, e.g. between repair factors and damage-induced histone marks, can be explained by lock-and-key or induced fit binding models assuming fixed stoichiometries, structurally less well defined interactions, such as the highly dynamic multivalent interactions implicated in phase separation, also participate in the formation of multi-protein assemblies in response to genotoxic stress. Although much remains to be learned about these types of cooperative and highly dynamic interactions and their functional roles, the rapidly growing interest in material properties of biomolecular condensates and in concepts from polymer chemistry and soft matter physics to understand biological processes at different scales holds great promises. Here, we discuss nuclear condensates in the context of genome integrity maintenance, highlighting the cooperative potential between clustered stoichiometric binding and phase separation. Rather than viewing them as opposing scenarios, their combined effects can balance structural specificity with favorable physicochemical properties relevant for the regulation and function of multilayered nuclear condensates.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry
Language:English
Date:1 October 2021
Deposited On:09 Sep 2021 10:17
Last Modified:25 Jun 2024 01:43
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1568-7856
OA Status:Hybrid
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2021.103179
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)