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Defects in KCNJ16 Cause a Novel Tubulopathy with Hypokalemia, Salt Wasting, Disturbed Acid-Base Homeostasis, and Sensorineural Deafness


Schlingmann, Karl P; Renigunta, Aparna; Hoorn, Ewout J; Forst, Anna-Lena; Renigunta, Vijay; Atanasov, Velko; et al; Lake, Jennifer; Debaix, Huguette; Devuyst, Olivier (2021). Defects in KCNJ16 Cause a Novel Tubulopathy with Hypokalemia, Salt Wasting, Disturbed Acid-Base Homeostasis, and Sensorineural Deafness. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN), 32(6):1498-1512.

Abstract

Background: The transepithelial transport of electrolytes, solutes, and water in the kidney is a well-orchestrated process involving numerous membrane transport systems. Basolateral potassium channels in tubular cells not only mediate potassium recycling for proper Na+,K+-ATPase function but are also involved in potassium and pH sensing. Genetic defects in KCNJ10 cause EAST/SeSAME syndrome, characterized by renal salt wasting with hypokalemic alkalosis associated with epilepsy, ataxia, and sensorineural deafness.

Methods: A candidate gene approach and whole-exome sequencing determined the underlying genetic defect in eight patients with a novel disease phenotype comprising a hypokalemic tubulopathy with renal salt wasting, disturbed acid-base homeostasis, and sensorineural deafness. Electrophysiologic studies and surface expression experiments investigated the functional consequences of newly identified gene variants.

Results: We identified mutations in the KCNJ16 gene encoding KCNJ16, which along with KCNJ15 and KCNJ10, constitutes the major basolateral potassium channel of the proximal and distal tubules, respectively. Coexpression of mutant KCNJ16 together with KCNJ15 or KCNJ10 in Xenopus oocytes significantly reduced currents.

Conclusions: Biallelic variants in KCNJ16 were identified in patients with a novel disease phenotype comprising a variable proximal and distal tubulopathy associated with deafness. Variants affect the function of heteromeric potassium channels, disturbing proximal tubular bicarbonate handling as well as distal tubular salt reabsorption.

Keywords: KCNJ10; KCNJ15; KCNJ16; acid-base homeostasis; deafness; distal tubule; hypokalemia; potassium channels; proximal tubule; tubulopathy.

Abstract

Background: The transepithelial transport of electrolytes, solutes, and water in the kidney is a well-orchestrated process involving numerous membrane transport systems. Basolateral potassium channels in tubular cells not only mediate potassium recycling for proper Na+,K+-ATPase function but are also involved in potassium and pH sensing. Genetic defects in KCNJ10 cause EAST/SeSAME syndrome, characterized by renal salt wasting with hypokalemic alkalosis associated with epilepsy, ataxia, and sensorineural deafness.

Methods: A candidate gene approach and whole-exome sequencing determined the underlying genetic defect in eight patients with a novel disease phenotype comprising a hypokalemic tubulopathy with renal salt wasting, disturbed acid-base homeostasis, and sensorineural deafness. Electrophysiologic studies and surface expression experiments investigated the functional consequences of newly identified gene variants.

Results: We identified mutations in the KCNJ16 gene encoding KCNJ16, which along with KCNJ15 and KCNJ10, constitutes the major basolateral potassium channel of the proximal and distal tubules, respectively. Coexpression of mutant KCNJ16 together with KCNJ15 or KCNJ10 in Xenopus oocytes significantly reduced currents.

Conclusions: Biallelic variants in KCNJ16 were identified in patients with a novel disease phenotype comprising a variable proximal and distal tubulopathy associated with deafness. Variants affect the function of heteromeric potassium channels, disturbing proximal tubular bicarbonate handling as well as distal tubular salt reabsorption.

Keywords: KCNJ10; KCNJ15; KCNJ16; acid-base homeostasis; deafness; distal tubule; hypokalemia; potassium channels; proximal tubule; tubulopathy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Nephrology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Nephrology, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 June 2021
Deposited On:13 Sep 2021 15:04
Last Modified:14 Sep 2021 20:00
Publisher:American Society of Nephrology
ISSN:1046-6673
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1681/asn.2020111587
PubMed ID:33811157
Project Information:
  • : FunderUniversity Research Priority Program (UFSP) ITINERARE
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderNational Centre of Competence in Research
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderEuropean Reference Network for Rare Kidney Diseases
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID310030_189044
  • : Project TitleUromodulin: from physiology to genetic susceptibility to disease

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