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Hypoglycemia attenuates acute amylin-induced reduction of food intake in male rats


Honegger, Miriam; Lutz, Thomas A; Boyle, Christina N (2021). Hypoglycemia attenuates acute amylin-induced reduction of food intake in male rats. Physiology and Behavior, 237:113435.

Abstract

The ability of amylin to inhibit gastric emptying and glucagon secretion in rats is reduced under hypoglycemic conditions. These effects are considered part of a fail-safe mechanism that prevents amylin from further decreasing nutrient supply when blood glucose levels are low. Because these actions and amylin-induced satiation are mediated by the area postrema (AP), it is plausible that these phenomena are based on the co-sensitivity of AP neurons to amylin and glucose. Using hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps in unrestrained and freely-feeding rats, we investigated whether amylin's ability to inhibit food intake is also reduced by hypoglycemia (HYPO). Following an 18 h fast, rats were infused with insulin and glucose for 45 min to clamp blood glucose at baseline levels (between 90 and 100 mg/dL). HYPO (approximately 55 mg/dL) was induced between 45 and 60 min and then maintained for the remainder of the clamp. Rats were injected with amylin (20 µg/kg) or saline and offered normal chow at 85 min. Food intake was measured at 30 and 60 min after amylin. Control hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic (EU) rats were maintained at approximately 150 mg/dL (which is a physiological periprandial glucose level) before and after amylin injection. Terminal experiments tested the effect of amylin to induce the phosphorylation of ERK, a marker of amylin action in the AP, in EU and HYPO conditions. Amylin significantly reduced 30- and 60-min food intake in EU rats, but the effect at 60-min was attenuated in HYPO rats. Interestingly, glucose infusion rate had to be dramatically reduced at meal onset in saline-treated, but not in amylin-treated, EU or HYPO rats; this suggests that meal-related glucose appearance in the blood was inhibited by amylin under both EU and HYPO. Finally, amylin induced a similar pERK response in the AP in EU and HYPO rats. We conclude that amylin's action to decrease eating is blunted in hypoglycemia, and this effect seems to be downstream from amylin-induced pERK in AP neurons. These data allow us to extend the idea of a hypoglycemic brake on amylin's actions to its food intake-reducing effect, but also demonstrate that amylin can buffer meal-induced glucose appearance at EU and HYPO levels.

Abstract

The ability of amylin to inhibit gastric emptying and glucagon secretion in rats is reduced under hypoglycemic conditions. These effects are considered part of a fail-safe mechanism that prevents amylin from further decreasing nutrient supply when blood glucose levels are low. Because these actions and amylin-induced satiation are mediated by the area postrema (AP), it is plausible that these phenomena are based on the co-sensitivity of AP neurons to amylin and glucose. Using hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps in unrestrained and freely-feeding rats, we investigated whether amylin's ability to inhibit food intake is also reduced by hypoglycemia (HYPO). Following an 18 h fast, rats were infused with insulin and glucose for 45 min to clamp blood glucose at baseline levels (between 90 and 100 mg/dL). HYPO (approximately 55 mg/dL) was induced between 45 and 60 min and then maintained for the remainder of the clamp. Rats were injected with amylin (20 µg/kg) or saline and offered normal chow at 85 min. Food intake was measured at 30 and 60 min after amylin. Control hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic (EU) rats were maintained at approximately 150 mg/dL (which is a physiological periprandial glucose level) before and after amylin injection. Terminal experiments tested the effect of amylin to induce the phosphorylation of ERK, a marker of amylin action in the AP, in EU and HYPO conditions. Amylin significantly reduced 30- and 60-min food intake in EU rats, but the effect at 60-min was attenuated in HYPO rats. Interestingly, glucose infusion rate had to be dramatically reduced at meal onset in saline-treated, but not in amylin-treated, EU or HYPO rats; this suggests that meal-related glucose appearance in the blood was inhibited by amylin under both EU and HYPO. Finally, amylin induced a similar pERK response in the AP in EU and HYPO rats. We conclude that amylin's action to decrease eating is blunted in hypoglycemia, and this effect seems to be downstream from amylin-induced pERK in AP neurons. These data allow us to extend the idea of a hypoglycemic brake on amylin's actions to its food intake-reducing effect, but also demonstrate that amylin can buffer meal-induced glucose appearance at EU and HYPO levels.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP)
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Social Sciences & Humanities > Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Life Sciences > Behavioral Neuroscience
Uncontrolled Keywords:Behavioral Neuroscience, Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Language:English
Date:1 August 2021
Deposited On:20 Sep 2021 12:09
Last Modified:26 Mar 2024 02:38
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0031-9384
OA Status:Hybrid
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113435
Project Information:
  • : FunderSwiss National Science Foundation
  • : Grant ID31003A-175458/1
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)