Intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are related to each other through cerebral autoregulation. Central venous pressure (CVP) is often measured to estimate cardiac filling pressures as an approximate measure for the volume status of a patient. Prior modelling efforts have formalized the functional relationship between CVP, ICP and ABP. However, these models were used to explain short segments of data during controlled experiments and have not yet been used to explain the slowly evolving ICP increase that occurs typically in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
To analyze the functional relationship between ICP, ABP and CVP recorded from SAH patients in the first five days after aneurysm.
Two methods were used to elucidate this relationship on the running average of the signals: First, using Spearman correlation coefficients calculated over 30 min segments Second, for each patient, linear state space models of ICP as the output and ABP and CVP as inputs were estimated.
The mean and variance of the data and the correlation coefficients between ICP-ABP and ICP-CVP vary over time as the patient progresses through their stay in the ICU. On average, after an SAH event, the models show that a) ABP is the bigger driver of changes in ICP than CVP and that increasing ABP leads to reduction in ICP and (b) increasing CVP leads to an increase in ICP.
Finding a) agrees with the hypothesis that patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage have defective autoregulation, and b) agrees with the positive correlation observed between central venous pressure and intracranial pressure in the literature.