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Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Lockdown on Glycaemic Control: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study in a Tertiary Setting


Zechmann, Stefan; Hotz, Leana; Di Gangi, Stefania; Baumgartl, Klaus; Plate, Andreas; Potlukova, Eliska (2021). Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Lockdown on Glycaemic Control: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study in a Tertiary Setting. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(18):4098.

Abstract

We analysed the effects of Swiss national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. In a retrospective observational cohort study with observation period 16 December 2018–27 July 2020, we included tertiary care patients with diabetes and at least one glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement before and after the lockdown beginning. Main outcome measure was change in HbA1c after the lockdown. We included 1078 patients (86% diabetes type 2) with a mean HbA1c of 55.63 mmol/mol (7.24%). Glycaemic control was susceptible to seasonal changes with higher mean HbA1c in winter as compared to spring (57.49 mmol/mol (7.41%) vs. 55.52 mmol/mol (7.23%), p = 0.013). The lockdown did not affect the mean HbA1c values of all patients. However, we found a higher proportion of type 2 diabetes patients with a worsening HbA1c after the lockdown as compared to the year before (32% vs. 22.9%, p = 0.02). In a mixed-model regression multivariable analysis, inappropriate alcohol intake and hypothyroidism were associated with an increase in HbA1c after the lockdown. In conclusion, the national lockdown had no effect on overall mean HbA1c values but affected a proportion of type 2 diabetes patients with worsening HbA1c, whose individual risk factors were identified.

Abstract

We analysed the effects of Swiss national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. In a retrospective observational cohort study with observation period 16 December 2018–27 July 2020, we included tertiary care patients with diabetes and at least one glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement before and after the lockdown beginning. Main outcome measure was change in HbA1c after the lockdown. We included 1078 patients (86% diabetes type 2) with a mean HbA1c of 55.63 mmol/mol (7.24%). Glycaemic control was susceptible to seasonal changes with higher mean HbA1c in winter as compared to spring (57.49 mmol/mol (7.41%) vs. 55.52 mmol/mol (7.23%), p = 0.013). The lockdown did not affect the mean HbA1c values of all patients. However, we found a higher proportion of type 2 diabetes patients with a worsening HbA1c after the lockdown as compared to the year before (32% vs. 22.9%, p = 0.02). In a mixed-model regression multivariable analysis, inappropriate alcohol intake and hypothyroidism were associated with an increase in HbA1c after the lockdown. In conclusion, the national lockdown had no effect on overall mean HbA1c values but affected a proportion of type 2 diabetes patients with worsening HbA1c, whose individual risk factors were identified.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Medicine
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Medicine
Language:English
Date:10 September 2021
Deposited On:07 Oct 2021 09:02
Last Modified:25 Feb 2024 02:44
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2077-0383
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184098
PubMed ID:34575207
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)