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The Role of Environmental Conditions on Master Marathon Running Performance in 1,280,557 Finishers the ‘New York City Marathon’ From 1970 to 2019


Knechtle, Beat; McGrath, Carlyn; Goncerz, Olivia; Villiger, Elias; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Marcin, Thimo; Sousa, Caio Victor (2021). The Role of Environmental Conditions on Master Marathon Running Performance in 1,280,557 Finishers the ‘New York City Marathon’ From 1970 to 2019. Frontiers in Physiology, 12:665761.

Abstract

Aim: This study investigated the influence of weather conditions on running performance in female and male age group runners in the largest marathon in the world, the “New York City Marathon.”Methods: The analysis included data from 1,280,557 finishers the “New York City Marathon” from the years 1970 to 2019. Linear mixed models for men and women finishers with race time (min) as dependent variable and 5-year age groups, temperature, wind and relative humidity tertiles (low, medium, high) as independent factors and finisher as random intercept was performed. Additional models with an interaction between age groups and one weather variable each were performed.Results: Temperature was positively associated with race time while wind speed and humidity were negatively associated (p < 0.001). Men were significantly greater affected wind speed and humidity than women (p < 0.001 for interaction) but not by temperature (p = 0.17 for interaction). With an average of 8 min longer race time, high temperature had the greatest effect on race time. The effect of high humidity on race time was significantly increased in 40–59 years old men and 25–65 years old women. High temperatures had an increased effect on race time in 30–64 years old men and 40–64 years old women. The inverse association between race time and high wind speed was pronounced in finishers with younger age.Conclusion: Performance was lower on days with high temperature, low humidity and low wind speed. Men seemed to benefit more from higher humidity and wind speed than women. Aged (70 +) finishers were not greater affected by high temperatures.

Abstract

Aim: This study investigated the influence of weather conditions on running performance in female and male age group runners in the largest marathon in the world, the “New York City Marathon.”Methods: The analysis included data from 1,280,557 finishers the “New York City Marathon” from the years 1970 to 2019. Linear mixed models for men and women finishers with race time (min) as dependent variable and 5-year age groups, temperature, wind and relative humidity tertiles (low, medium, high) as independent factors and finisher as random intercept was performed. Additional models with an interaction between age groups and one weather variable each were performed.Results: Temperature was positively associated with race time while wind speed and humidity were negatively associated (p < 0.001). Men were significantly greater affected wind speed and humidity than women (p < 0.001 for interaction) but not by temperature (p = 0.17 for interaction). With an average of 8 min longer race time, high temperature had the greatest effect on race time. The effect of high humidity on race time was significantly increased in 40–59 years old men and 25–65 years old women. High temperatures had an increased effect on race time in 30–64 years old men and 40–64 years old women. The inverse association between race time and high wind speed was pronounced in finishers with younger age.Conclusion: Performance was lower on days with high temperature, low humidity and low wind speed. Men seemed to benefit more from higher humidity and wind speed than women. Aged (70 +) finishers were not greater affected by high temperatures.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Physiology
Health Sciences > Physiology (medical)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Physiology (medical), Physiology
Language:English
Date:17 May 2021
Deposited On:12 Oct 2021 15:19
Last Modified:25 Apr 2024 01:39
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1664-042X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.665761
PubMed ID:34079472
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)