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Influence of 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid on the Soft Tissue-Dissolving and Gelatinolytic Effect of Ultrasonically Activated Sodium Hypochlorite in Simulated Endodontic Environments


Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Ivica, Anja; Meneses, Pamela; Narkedamalli, Raj Kumar; Attin, Thomas; Zehnder, Matthias (2021). Influence of 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid on the Soft Tissue-Dissolving and Gelatinolytic Effect of Ultrasonically Activated Sodium Hypochlorite in Simulated Endodontic Environments. Materials, 14(10):2531.

Abstract

The addition of Dual Rinse HEDP, an etidronate powder, to a sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution can create a combined single endodontic irrigant with a soft tissue-dissolving and a decalcifying effect, which can replace traditional alternating irrigation with chemically non-compatible solutions. While the short-term compatibility between NaOCl and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) has been shown, it remains unclear whether ultrasonic activation of a combined NaOCl & HEDP solution immediately reduces the available chlorine and/or renders the NaOCl ineffective in dissolving organic tissue remnants. This was tested in three experiments: (1) direct activation in test tubes in an ultrasonic bath and then the activation by an ultrasonically oscillating tip (IrriSafe) in (2) an epoxy resin model containing a simulated isthmus filled with gelatin, and (3) extracted teeth with simulated resorption cavities filled with soft tissue. The control solutions were physiological saline and 2.5% NaOCl without HEDP. In (1), available chlorine after 30 s of ultrasonic activation (37 kHz) of test and control solution was assessed, as well as shrimp tissue weight loss in direct exposure. In (2) and (3), the ultrasonic tip was driven at 1/3 of full power using the respective unit, and areas of removed gelatin from the isthmus and tissue weight loss were used as the outcomes, respectively. Experiment (1) revealed no negative impact by HEDP on available chlorine (1), while all three experiments showed a highly significant (p > 0.001) synergistic effect, which was not hampered by HEDP, between NaOCl and ultrasonic activation regarding tissue weight loss (1, 3) and dissolution of gelatin (2).

Abstract

The addition of Dual Rinse HEDP, an etidronate powder, to a sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution can create a combined single endodontic irrigant with a soft tissue-dissolving and a decalcifying effect, which can replace traditional alternating irrigation with chemically non-compatible solutions. While the short-term compatibility between NaOCl and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) has been shown, it remains unclear whether ultrasonic activation of a combined NaOCl & HEDP solution immediately reduces the available chlorine and/or renders the NaOCl ineffective in dissolving organic tissue remnants. This was tested in three experiments: (1) direct activation in test tubes in an ultrasonic bath and then the activation by an ultrasonically oscillating tip (IrriSafe) in (2) an epoxy resin model containing a simulated isthmus filled with gelatin, and (3) extracted teeth with simulated resorption cavities filled with soft tissue. The control solutions were physiological saline and 2.5% NaOCl without HEDP. In (1), available chlorine after 30 s of ultrasonic activation (37 kHz) of test and control solution was assessed, as well as shrimp tissue weight loss in direct exposure. In (2) and (3), the ultrasonic tip was driven at 1/3 of full power using the respective unit, and areas of removed gelatin from the isthmus and tissue weight loss were used as the outcomes, respectively. Experiment (1) revealed no negative impact by HEDP on available chlorine (1), while all three experiments showed a highly significant (p > 0.001) synergistic effect, which was not hampered by HEDP, between NaOCl and ultrasonic activation regarding tissue weight loss (1, 3) and dissolution of gelatin (2).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > General Materials Science
Physical Sciences > Condensed Matter Physics
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Materials Science
Language:English
Date:13 May 2021
Deposited On:13 Oct 2021 10:02
Last Modified:25 Apr 2024 01:39
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1996-1944
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102531
PubMed ID:34068094
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)