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Gingival phenotype assessment methods and classifications revisited: a preclinical study


Fischer, Kai R; Büchel, Jasmin; Testori, Tiziano; Rasperini, Giulio; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick (2021). Gingival phenotype assessment methods and classifications revisited: a preclinical study. Clinical Oral Investigations, 25(9):5513-5518.

Abstract

Objective
To compare gingival phenotype assessment methods based on soft tissue transparency on different backgrounds and assessor experience levels.
Methods
For this purpose, 24 gingival specimens were retrieved from pig jaws with tissue thicknesses from 0.2 to 1.25 mm. Three methods were assessed: periodontal probe PCP12 (thin/thick), double-ended periodontal probe DBS12 (thin/moderate/thick) and colour-based phenotype probe CBP (thin/moderate/thick/very thick). Each sample was photographed with each probe underneath and categorized whether the probe was visible or not using different coloured backgrounds. To measure experience level influence, dentists, dental undergraduate students and laypersons (n = 10/group) performed the evaluation.
Results
PCP12 probe showed a threshold between 0.4 and 0.5 mm. To distinct between thin and moderate thick gingiva, a comparable range for DBS12 was found while moderate thickness was between 0.5 and 0.8 mm and for thick above 0.8 mm. CBP also showed a comparable threshold of 0.5 mm for thin versus moderate as compared with the other methods; above 0.8 mm, predominantly a very thick tissue was measured. In general, the background colour had a minor impact on PCP12 and DBS12, and investigator experience showed no clear influence on GP assessment.
Conclusion
Based on probe transparency and within the limitation of a preclinical study, we suggest GP differentiation into three entities: thin (< 0.5 mm; high risk), moderate (0.5–0.8 mm; medium risk) and thick (> 0.8 mm; low risk).
Clinical relevance
All three GP assessment methods are easy to perform and seem to have a high predictive value with a three entities classification for DBS12 and CBP.

Abstract

Objective
To compare gingival phenotype assessment methods based on soft tissue transparency on different backgrounds and assessor experience levels.
Methods
For this purpose, 24 gingival specimens were retrieved from pig jaws with tissue thicknesses from 0.2 to 1.25 mm. Three methods were assessed: periodontal probe PCP12 (thin/thick), double-ended periodontal probe DBS12 (thin/moderate/thick) and colour-based phenotype probe CBP (thin/moderate/thick/very thick). Each sample was photographed with each probe underneath and categorized whether the probe was visible or not using different coloured backgrounds. To measure experience level influence, dentists, dental undergraduate students and laypersons (n = 10/group) performed the evaluation.
Results
PCP12 probe showed a threshold between 0.4 and 0.5 mm. To distinct between thin and moderate thick gingiva, a comparable range for DBS12 was found while moderate thickness was between 0.5 and 0.8 mm and for thick above 0.8 mm. CBP also showed a comparable threshold of 0.5 mm for thin versus moderate as compared with the other methods; above 0.8 mm, predominantly a very thick tissue was measured. In general, the background colour had a minor impact on PCP12 and DBS12, and investigator experience showed no clear influence on GP assessment.
Conclusion
Based on probe transparency and within the limitation of a preclinical study, we suggest GP differentiation into three entities: thin (< 0.5 mm; high risk), moderate (0.5–0.8 mm; medium risk) and thick (> 0.8 mm; low risk).
Clinical relevance
All three GP assessment methods are easy to perform and seem to have a high predictive value with a three entities classification for DBS12 and CBP.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > General Dentistry
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Dentistry
Language:English
Date:1 September 2021
Deposited On:28 Oct 2021 09:42
Last Modified:26 Apr 2024 01:35
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1432-6981
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-03860-5
PubMed ID:33725167
Project Information:
  • : FunderUniversität Zürich
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)