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Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for nocardiosis in solid organ transplant recipients: Real-life data from a multicentre retrospective study


Conan, Pierre-Louis; Matignon, Marie; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Guillot, Hélène; Van Laecke, Steven; Brenier, Henri; Crochette, Romain; Melica, Giovanna; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Dantal, Jacques; Walti, Laura N; Levi, Charlène; Chauvet, Cécile; De Greef, Julien; Marbus, Sierk D; Mueller, Nicolas J; Ieven, Margareta; Vuotto, Fanny; Lortholary, Olivier; Coussement, Julien; Lebeaux, David (2021). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for nocardiosis in solid organ transplant recipients: Real-life data from a multicentre retrospective study. Transplant Infectious Disease, 23(4):e13669.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Little is known regarding the optimal management of nocardiosis among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. It is often suggested to avoid trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) monotherapy in heavily immunocompromised patients (such as SOT recipients) and/or in case of severe or disseminated nocardiosis. Our aim was to report our experience with TMP-SMX monotherapy in SOT recipients with nocardiosis.

METHODS

Using data from a previously published European study, we assessed the incidence of adverse events in SOT recipients receiving TMP-SMX monotherapy and assessed its effectiveness.

RESULTS

Thirty-one SOT recipients with nocardiosis were included, mostly kidney transplant recipients (20/31, 65%). Eleven (36%) had disseminated infection, and four (13%) had brain nocardiosis. Most patients had lung and/or pleural involvement (26/31, 84%). Daily dose of trimethoprim at initiation was 10 [6.4-14.8] mg/kg. The median estimated glomerular filtration rate at time of diagnosis of nocardiosis was 44 [30-62] ml/min/1.73 m². TMP-SMX was discontinued prematurely in one third of the patients (10/31, 32%, mostly for hematological toxicity [n = 3] or increased serum creatinine [n = 3]). Focusing on the 24 (77%) patients who completed at least 30 days of TMP-SMX monotherapy, 4 had late (>30 days) drug discontinuation, 1 experienced treatment failure, and 19 completed planned TMP-SMX monotherapy. Clinical outcome was favorable in these 19 patients, despite the fact that 8 (42%) had disseminated infection and 2 (11%) brain nocardiosis. Overall, all-cause 1-year mortality was 10% (3/31).

CONCLUSIONS

TMP-SMX monotherapy appears to be effective for the treatment of most nocardiosis among SOT recipients. Interventional studies are needed to compare its safety and effectiveness with those of other regimens used to treat posttransplant nocardiosis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Little is known regarding the optimal management of nocardiosis among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. It is often suggested to avoid trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) monotherapy in heavily immunocompromised patients (such as SOT recipients) and/or in case of severe or disseminated nocardiosis. Our aim was to report our experience with TMP-SMX monotherapy in SOT recipients with nocardiosis.

METHODS

Using data from a previously published European study, we assessed the incidence of adverse events in SOT recipients receiving TMP-SMX monotherapy and assessed its effectiveness.

RESULTS

Thirty-one SOT recipients with nocardiosis were included, mostly kidney transplant recipients (20/31, 65%). Eleven (36%) had disseminated infection, and four (13%) had brain nocardiosis. Most patients had lung and/or pleural involvement (26/31, 84%). Daily dose of trimethoprim at initiation was 10 [6.4-14.8] mg/kg. The median estimated glomerular filtration rate at time of diagnosis of nocardiosis was 44 [30-62] ml/min/1.73 m². TMP-SMX was discontinued prematurely in one third of the patients (10/31, 32%, mostly for hematological toxicity [n = 3] or increased serum creatinine [n = 3]). Focusing on the 24 (77%) patients who completed at least 30 days of TMP-SMX monotherapy, 4 had late (>30 days) drug discontinuation, 1 experienced treatment failure, and 19 completed planned TMP-SMX monotherapy. Clinical outcome was favorable in these 19 patients, despite the fact that 8 (42%) had disseminated infection and 2 (11%) brain nocardiosis. Overall, all-cause 1-year mortality was 10% (3/31).

CONCLUSIONS

TMP-SMX monotherapy appears to be effective for the treatment of most nocardiosis among SOT recipients. Interventional studies are needed to compare its safety and effectiveness with those of other regimens used to treat posttransplant nocardiosis.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Health Sciences > Transplantation
Language:English
Date:8 July 2021
Deposited On:11 Nov 2021 09:26
Last Modified:26 Jun 2024 01:43
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1398-2273
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/tid.13669
PubMed ID:34143917
Full text not available from this repository.