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Generation of gravitational waves and tidal disruptions in clumpy galaxies


Pestoni, Boris; Bortolas, Elisa; Capelo, Pedro R; Mayer, Lucio (2020). Generation of gravitational waves and tidal disruptions in clumpy galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 500(4):4628-4638.

Abstract

Obtaining a better understanding of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is crucial, as their properties could shed light on the origin and growth of their supermassive counterparts. Massive star-forming clumps, which are present in a large fraction of massive galaxies at z ∼ 1–3, are among the venues wherein IMBHs could reside. We perform a series of Fokker–Planck simulations to explore the occurrence of tidal disruption (TD) and gravitational wave (GW) events about an IMBH in a massive star-forming clump, modelling the latter so that its mass (⁠108M⊙⁠) and effective radius (100 pc) are consistent with the properties of both observed and simulated clumps. We find that the TD and GW event rates are in the ranges of 10−6 to 10−5 and 10−8 to 10−7 yr−1, respectively, depending on the assumptions for the initial inner density profile of the system (ρ ∝ r−2 or ∝ r−1) and the initial mass of the central IMBH (105 or 103M⊙⁠). By integrating the GW event rate over z = 1–3, we expect that the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will be able to detect ∼2 GW events per year coming from these massive clumps; the intrinsic rate of TD events from these systems amounts instead to a few 103 per year, a fraction of which will be observable by e.g. the Square Kilometre Array and the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics. In conclusion, our results support the idea that the forthcoming GW and electromagnetic facilities may have the unprecedented opportunity of unveiling the lurking population of IMBHs.

Abstract

Obtaining a better understanding of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is crucial, as their properties could shed light on the origin and growth of their supermassive counterparts. Massive star-forming clumps, which are present in a large fraction of massive galaxies at z ∼ 1–3, are among the venues wherein IMBHs could reside. We perform a series of Fokker–Planck simulations to explore the occurrence of tidal disruption (TD) and gravitational wave (GW) events about an IMBH in a massive star-forming clump, modelling the latter so that its mass (⁠108M⊙⁠) and effective radius (100 pc) are consistent with the properties of both observed and simulated clumps. We find that the TD and GW event rates are in the ranges of 10−6 to 10−5 and 10−8 to 10−7 yr−1, respectively, depending on the assumptions for the initial inner density profile of the system (ρ ∝ r−2 or ∝ r−1) and the initial mass of the central IMBH (105 or 103M⊙⁠). By integrating the GW event rate over z = 1–3, we expect that the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will be able to detect ∼2 GW events per year coming from these massive clumps; the intrinsic rate of TD events from these systems amounts instead to a few 103 per year, a fraction of which will be observable by e.g. the Square Kilometre Array and the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics. In conclusion, our results support the idea that the forthcoming GW and electromagnetic facilities may have the unprecedented opportunity of unveiling the lurking population of IMBHs.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Physical Sciences > Space and Planetary Science
Uncontrolled Keywords:Space and Planetary Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics
Language:English
Date:9 December 2020
Deposited On:08 Dec 2021 04:55
Last Modified:27 Mar 2024 02:57
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0035-8711
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3496
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID200020_178949
  • : Project TitleMassive black holes as gravitational wave sources in the landscape of galaxy formation
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)