INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Aim of this study was to investigate the excitability of sphincter motor neurons under the influence of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and duloxetine. Due to their mechanisms of action, there might be a synergistic effect of duloxetine and PFMT in regard to the facilitation of spinal reflexes controlling urethral sphincter contractions and hence continence. METHODS: In ten healthy female subjects, clitoral electric stimulation (CES) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were used to determine individual motor thresholds for external urethral sphincter (EUS) contractions before and after PFMT, duloxetine, and PFMT + duloxetine. RESULTS: PFMT and duloxetine alone significantly decreased the motor thresholds for EUS contractions during CES and TMS. However, the combined treatment reduced the motor threshold for EUS contractions significantly stronger compared to PFMT or duloxetine alone. CONCLUSIONS: The results are suggestive for a synergistic facilitatory effect of PFMT and duloxetine on sphincter motor neuron activation.