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Multi-informant Implementation and Intervention Outcomes of Opioid Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution in New York City


Brandt, Laura; Yanagida, Takuya; Campbell, Aimee N C; Jones, Jermaine D; Schultes, Marie-Therese; Martinez, Suky; Comer, Sandra D (2021). Multi-informant Implementation and Intervention Outcomes of Opioid Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution in New York City. Global Implementation Research and Applications, 1(3):209-222.

Abstract

Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) is an effective public health intervention to reduce opioid overdose fatalities (McDonald and Strang, Addiction 111:1177–1187, 2016). However, we know little about OEND implementation outcomes (i.e., indicators of implementation success), specifically the fidelity of training delivery, and how these may relate to intervention outcomes (i.e., indicators of the success or effectiveness of an intervention), such as overdose knowledge and attitudes. This study evaluated 16 OEND trainings conducted at different Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs in New York City. Trainees (N = 75) completed the Opioid Overdose Knowledge and Attitude Scales before and after training (intervention outcomes). Implementation outcomes were fidelity (competence and adherence of the trainer, N = 10; modified Fidelity Checklist) and acceptability of OEND (Acceptability of Intervention Measure), assessed from multiple perspectives (trainees, trainers, and an independent observer). Trainees’ overdose knowledge, t(71) = − 8.12, p < 0.001, 95% CI [− 6.54, − 3.96], and attitudes, t(65) = − 6.85, p < 0.001, 95% CI [− 0.59, − 0.33], improved significantly from pre- to post-training. Stepwise multiple regression models indicated that adherence of the trainer rated from the observer perspective added significantly to the prediction of changes in overdose knowledge, F(1, 67) = 9.81, p = 0.003, and explained 13% of the variance in outcome. However, fidelity measures from the perspective of trainees or trainers and acceptability of OEND were not associated with changes in trainees’ overdose knowledge or attitudes. OEND implementation outcomes and their relationship with intervention outcomes differed depending on the role of the fidelity rater in relation to the intervention. Specifically, our findings indicate that fidelity should be measured from an independent perspective (i.e., an individual who is experienced with fidelity rating but not directly involved in the intervention).

Abstract

Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) is an effective public health intervention to reduce opioid overdose fatalities (McDonald and Strang, Addiction 111:1177–1187, 2016). However, we know little about OEND implementation outcomes (i.e., indicators of implementation success), specifically the fidelity of training delivery, and how these may relate to intervention outcomes (i.e., indicators of the success or effectiveness of an intervention), such as overdose knowledge and attitudes. This study evaluated 16 OEND trainings conducted at different Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs in New York City. Trainees (N = 75) completed the Opioid Overdose Knowledge and Attitude Scales before and after training (intervention outcomes). Implementation outcomes were fidelity (competence and adherence of the trainer, N = 10; modified Fidelity Checklist) and acceptability of OEND (Acceptability of Intervention Measure), assessed from multiple perspectives (trainees, trainers, and an independent observer). Trainees’ overdose knowledge, t(71) = − 8.12, p < 0.001, 95% CI [− 6.54, − 3.96], and attitudes, t(65) = − 6.85, p < 0.001, 95% CI [− 0.59, − 0.33], improved significantly from pre- to post-training. Stepwise multiple regression models indicated that adherence of the trainer rated from the observer perspective added significantly to the prediction of changes in overdose knowledge, F(1, 67) = 9.81, p = 0.003, and explained 13% of the variance in outcome. However, fidelity measures from the perspective of trainees or trainers and acceptability of OEND were not associated with changes in trainees’ overdose knowledge or attitudes. OEND implementation outcomes and their relationship with intervention outcomes differed depending on the role of the fidelity rater in relation to the intervention. Specifically, our findings indicate that fidelity should be measured from an independent perspective (i.e., an individual who is experienced with fidelity rating but not directly involved in the intervention).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Implementation Science in Health Care
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Polymers and Plastics
Language:English
Date:1 September 2021
Deposited On:06 Dec 2021 05:10
Last Modified:01 Jun 2023 20:26
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:2662-9275
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s43477-021-00021-4
PubMed ID:34622215
Project Information:
  • : FunderAustrian Science Fund
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)