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Intestinal eosinophils, homeostasis and response to bacterial intrusion


Gurtner, Alessandra; Gonzalez-Perez, Ignacio; Arnold, Isabelle C (2021). Intestinal eosinophils, homeostasis and response to bacterial intrusion. Seminars in Immunopathology, 43(3):295-306.

Abstract

Eosinophils are traditionally considered as end-stage effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of Th2 immune-mediated disorders as well as in the protection against parasite infection. However, this restricted view has recently been challenged by a series of studies revealing the highly plastic nature of these cells and implication in various homeostatic processes. Large numbers of eosinophils reside in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, at the front line of host defence, where they contribute to maintain the intestinal epithelial barrier function in the face of inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage. Eosinophils confer active protection against bacterial pathogens capable of penetrating the mucosal barrier through the release of cytotoxic compounds and the generation of extracellular DNA traps. Eosinophils also integrate tissue-specific cytokine signals such as IFN-γ, which synergise with bacterial recognition pathways to enforce different context-dependent functional responses, thereby ensuring a rapid adaptation to the ever-changing intestinal environment. The ability of eosinophils to regulate local immune responses and respond to microbial stimuli further supports the pivotal role of these cells in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis at the intestinal interface.

Abstract

Eosinophils are traditionally considered as end-stage effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of Th2 immune-mediated disorders as well as in the protection against parasite infection. However, this restricted view has recently been challenged by a series of studies revealing the highly plastic nature of these cells and implication in various homeostatic processes. Large numbers of eosinophils reside in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, at the front line of host defence, where they contribute to maintain the intestinal epithelial barrier function in the face of inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage. Eosinophils confer active protection against bacterial pathogens capable of penetrating the mucosal barrier through the release of cytotoxic compounds and the generation of extracellular DNA traps. Eosinophils also integrate tissue-specific cytokine signals such as IFN-γ, which synergise with bacterial recognition pathways to enforce different context-dependent functional responses, thereby ensuring a rapid adaptation to the ever-changing intestinal environment. The ability of eosinophils to regulate local immune responses and respond to microbial stimuli further supports the pivotal role of these cells in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis at the intestinal interface.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Immunology, Immunology and Allergy
Language:English
Date:1 June 2021
Deposited On:16 Dec 2021 06:31
Last Modified:26 Apr 2024 01:37
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1863-2297
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-021-00856-x
PubMed ID:33929602
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID310030_182744
  • : Project TitleImmunomodulatory functions of eosinophils in gastrointestinal health and disease
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)