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Loss of regulatory capacity in Treg cells following rhinovirus infection


Abstract

BACKGROUND

Respiratory infections with rhinoviruses (RV) are strongly associated with development and exacerbations of asthma, and they pose an additional health risk for subjects with allergy.

OBJECTIVE

How RV infections and chronic allergic diseases are linked and what role RV plays in the breaking of tolerance in regulatory T (Treg) cells is unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of RV on Treg cells.

METHODS

Treg cells were isolated from subjects with asthma and controls after experimental infection with the RV-A16 (RV16) and analyzed with next-generation sequencing. Additionally, suppression assays, quantitative PCR assays, and protein quantifications were performed with Treg cells after in vitro RV16 infection.

RESULTS

RV16 induced a strong antiviral response in Treg cells from subjects with asthma and controls, including the upregulation of IFI44L, MX1, ISG15, IRF7, and STAT1. In subjects with asthma, the inflammatory response was exaggerated and showed a dysregulated immune response compared with that in the controls. Furthermore, subjects with asthma failed to upregulate several immunosuppressive molecules such as CTLA4 and CD69, and they upregulated the inflammasome-related genes PYCARD and AIM2. Additionally, RV16 reduced the suppressive capacity of Treg cells from healthy subjects and subjects with asthma in vitro and increased T$_{H}$2 cell-type cytokine production.

CONCLUSIONS

Treg cells from healthy subjects and subjects with asthma displayed an antiviral response after RV infection and showed reduced suppressive capacity. These data suggest that Treg cell function might be altered or impaired during RV infections, which might play an important role in the association between RV and the development of asthma and asthma exacerbations.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Respiratory infections with rhinoviruses (RV) are strongly associated with development and exacerbations of asthma, and they pose an additional health risk for subjects with allergy.

OBJECTIVE

How RV infections and chronic allergic diseases are linked and what role RV plays in the breaking of tolerance in regulatory T (Treg) cells is unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of RV on Treg cells.

METHODS

Treg cells were isolated from subjects with asthma and controls after experimental infection with the RV-A16 (RV16) and analyzed with next-generation sequencing. Additionally, suppression assays, quantitative PCR assays, and protein quantifications were performed with Treg cells after in vitro RV16 infection.

RESULTS

RV16 induced a strong antiviral response in Treg cells from subjects with asthma and controls, including the upregulation of IFI44L, MX1, ISG15, IRF7, and STAT1. In subjects with asthma, the inflammatory response was exaggerated and showed a dysregulated immune response compared with that in the controls. Furthermore, subjects with asthma failed to upregulate several immunosuppressive molecules such as CTLA4 and CD69, and they upregulated the inflammasome-related genes PYCARD and AIM2. Additionally, RV16 reduced the suppressive capacity of Treg cells from healthy subjects and subjects with asthma in vitro and increased T$_{H}$2 cell-type cytokine production.

CONCLUSIONS

Treg cells from healthy subjects and subjects with asthma displayed an antiviral response after RV infection and showed reduced suppressive capacity. These data suggest that Treg cell function might be altered or impaired during RV infections, which might play an important role in the association between RV and the development of asthma and asthma exacerbations.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Functional Genomics Center Zurich
04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Language:English
Date:October 2021
Deposited On:06 Jan 2022 14:31
Last Modified:25 Feb 2024 02:51
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0091-6749
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.05.045
PubMed ID:34153372
Full text not available from this repository.