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Simultaneous Exposure to Angiostrongylus vasorum and Vector-Borne Pathogens in Dogs from Italy


Morelli, Simone; Gori, Francesca; Colombo, Mariasole; Traversa, Donato; Sarrocco, Giulia; Simonato, Giulia; Nespeca, Chiara; Di Cesare, Angela; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Russi, Ilaria; Schnyder, Manuela (2021). Simultaneous Exposure to Angiostrongylus vasorum and Vector-Borne Pathogens in Dogs from Italy. Pathogens, 10(9):1200.

Abstract

Several drivers have recently fostered the expansion of Angiostrongylus vasorum throughout Europe, where Vector-Borne Pathogens (VBPs) are also spreading. However, the level of simultaneous risk of infection is still unknown in canine populations. This study evaluated the simultaneous exposure to A. vasorum and major canine VBPs in dogs of Italy. Sera of 294 dogs were subjected to two ELISAs, detecting A. vasorum circulating antigens and antibodies against the parasite, and to the following assays: (i) SNAP® 4DX (IDEXX Laboratories Inc.) detecting Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and antibodies vs. Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. and (ii) IFAT for the detection of antibodies vs. Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Rickettsia conorii. Twenty-two (7.5%, CI: 4.8–11.1%) and six (2%, CI: 0.7–4.4%) dogs scored positive for circulating A. vasorum antibodies and antigens, respectively. Seventeen dogs (5.8%, CI: 3.4–9.1%) were positive for A. vasorum antibodies + at least one VBP, three (1%, CI: 0.2–3%) for A. vasorum antigen + at least one VBP, while one dog (0.3%, CI: 0.01–1.88%) was positive for A. vasorum antigen + A. vasorum antibodies + B. canis antibodies. These results show that dogs living in different regions of Italy are at risk of simultaneous infections with both A. vasorum and VBPs. Despite the same scenario being likely in other countries of Europe, the current knowledge is scant. Therefore, further studies are warranted to amplify current epizootiological information and to understand whether control programs should be improved.

Abstract

Several drivers have recently fostered the expansion of Angiostrongylus vasorum throughout Europe, where Vector-Borne Pathogens (VBPs) are also spreading. However, the level of simultaneous risk of infection is still unknown in canine populations. This study evaluated the simultaneous exposure to A. vasorum and major canine VBPs in dogs of Italy. Sera of 294 dogs were subjected to two ELISAs, detecting A. vasorum circulating antigens and antibodies against the parasite, and to the following assays: (i) SNAP® 4DX (IDEXX Laboratories Inc.) detecting Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and antibodies vs. Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. and (ii) IFAT for the detection of antibodies vs. Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Rickettsia conorii. Twenty-two (7.5%, CI: 4.8–11.1%) and six (2%, CI: 0.7–4.4%) dogs scored positive for circulating A. vasorum antibodies and antigens, respectively. Seventeen dogs (5.8%, CI: 3.4–9.1%) were positive for A. vasorum antibodies + at least one VBP, three (1%, CI: 0.2–3%) for A. vasorum antigen + at least one VBP, while one dog (0.3%, CI: 0.01–1.88%) was positive for A. vasorum antigen + A. vasorum antibodies + B. canis antibodies. These results show that dogs living in different regions of Italy are at risk of simultaneous infections with both A. vasorum and VBPs. Despite the same scenario being likely in other countries of Europe, the current knowledge is scant. Therefore, further studies are warranted to amplify current epizootiological information and to understand whether control programs should be improved.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > General Immunology and Microbiology
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Infectious Diseases, Microbiology (medical), General Immunology and Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Immunology and Allergy
Language:English
Date:15 September 2021
Deposited On:25 Dec 2021 12:39
Last Modified:26 Jun 2024 01:46
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2076-0817
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091200
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)