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Secretory microRNA Profiles of Third- and Fourth-Stage Dirofilaria immitis Larvae with Different Macrocyclic Lactone Susceptibility: In Search of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Infection


Tritten, Lucienne; Burkman, Erica J; Clark, Tobias; Verocai, Guilherme G (2021). Secretory microRNA Profiles of Third- and Fourth-Stage Dirofilaria immitis Larvae with Different Macrocyclic Lactone Susceptibility: In Search of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Infection. Pathogens, 10(7):786.

Abstract

The canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is among the most important parasites of dogs in the United States and worldwide, and may cause severe and potentially fatal disease. Current diagnostic recommendations rely on serological detection of an adult female antigen, and visualization of microfilariae in the blood. Therefore, a reliable diagnosis can be only performed approximately six months post-infection. There is a growing need to characterize novel diagnostic markers that are capable of detecting the early stages of heartworm infection, in special markers associated with third-stage larvae (L3) and fourth-stage larvae (L4). The early detection of infection would guide medical interventions that could impede the development of patent infections and further parasite transmission. We cultured D. immitis L3 and L4 of two laboratorial strains with different susceptibility statuses to macrocyclic lactone drugs in vitro. Excretory/secretory microRNAs were sequenced and analyzed. We identified two miRNA novel candidates secreted abundantly by both L3 and L4 of both strains. These candidates were previously detected in the secretions of other D. immitis stages and one of them was found in the blood of D. immitis-infected dogs. These miRNAs have not been found in the secretions of other nematodes and could be D. immitis-specific diagnostic biomarkers, which could allow for the early detection of infection.

Abstract

The canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is among the most important parasites of dogs in the United States and worldwide, and may cause severe and potentially fatal disease. Current diagnostic recommendations rely on serological detection of an adult female antigen, and visualization of microfilariae in the blood. Therefore, a reliable diagnosis can be only performed approximately six months post-infection. There is a growing need to characterize novel diagnostic markers that are capable of detecting the early stages of heartworm infection, in special markers associated with third-stage larvae (L3) and fourth-stage larvae (L4). The early detection of infection would guide medical interventions that could impede the development of patent infections and further parasite transmission. We cultured D. immitis L3 and L4 of two laboratorial strains with different susceptibility statuses to macrocyclic lactone drugs in vitro. Excretory/secretory microRNAs were sequenced and analyzed. We identified two miRNA novel candidates secreted abundantly by both L3 and L4 of both strains. These candidates were previously detected in the secretions of other D. immitis stages and one of them was found in the blood of D. immitis-infected dogs. These miRNAs have not been found in the secretions of other nematodes and could be D. immitis-specific diagnostic biomarkers, which could allow for the early detection of infection.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinärwissenschaftliches Institut > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > General Immunology and Microbiology
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Infectious Diseases, Microbiology (medical), General Immunology and Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Immunology and Allergy
Language:English
Date:22 June 2021
Deposited On:25 Dec 2021 12:53
Last Modified:26 Jun 2024 01:46
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2076-0817
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070786
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)