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"Assessing Today for a Better Tomorrow": An observational cohort study about quality of care, mortality and morbidity among newborn infants admitted to neonatal intensive care in Guinea


Merscher Alves, Maria Bea; Conté, N'Fanly; Diallo, Boubacar; Mamadou, Moustapha; Delamou, Albert; John, Oliver; von Felten, Stefanie; Diallo, Ibrahima Sory; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias (2021). "Assessing Today for a Better Tomorrow": An observational cohort study about quality of care, mortality and morbidity among newborn infants admitted to neonatal intensive care in Guinea. PLoS ONE, 16(8):e0254938.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Neonatal mortality in Guinea accounts for about 30% of all fatalities in children younger than five years. Countrywide, specialized neonatal intensive care is provided in one single clinic with markedly limited resources. To implement targeted measures, prospective data on patient characteristics and factors of neonatal death are needed.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the rates of morbidity and mortality, to describe clinical characteristics of admitted newborns requiring intensive care, to assess the quality of disease management, and to identify factors contributing to neonatal mortality.

METHODS

Prospective observational cohort study of newborns admitted to the hospital between mid-February and mid-March 2019 after birth in other institutions. Data were collected on maternal/prenatal history, delivery, and in-hospital care via convenience sampling. Associations of patient characteristics with in-hospital death were assessed using cause-specific Cox proportional-hazards models.

RESULTS

Half of the 168 admitted newborns underwent postnatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Reasons for admission included respiratory distress (49.4%), poor postnatal adaptation (45.8%), prematurity (46.2%), and infections (37.1%). 101 newborns (61.2%) arrived in serious/critical general condition; 90 children (53.9%) showed clinical signs of neurological damage. Quality of care was poor: Only 59.4% of the 64 newborns admitted with hypothermia were externally heated; likewise, 57.1% of 45 jaundiced infants did not receive phototherapy. Death occurred in 56 children (33.3%) due to birth asphyxia (42.9%), prematurity (33.9%), and sepsis (12.5%). Newborns in serious/critical general condition at admission had about a fivefold higher hazard to die than those admitted in good condition (HR 5.21 95%-CI 2.42-11.25, p = <0.0001). Hypothermia at admission was also associated with a higher hazard of death (HR 2.00, 95%-CI 1.10-3.65, p = 0.023).

CONCLUSION

Neonatal mortality was strikingly high. Birth asphyxia, prematurity, and infection accounted for 89.3% of death, aggravated by poor quality of in-hospital care. Children with serious general condition at admission had poor chances of survival. The whole concept of perinatal care in Guinea requires reconsideration.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Neonatal mortality in Guinea accounts for about 30% of all fatalities in children younger than five years. Countrywide, specialized neonatal intensive care is provided in one single clinic with markedly limited resources. To implement targeted measures, prospective data on patient characteristics and factors of neonatal death are needed.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the rates of morbidity and mortality, to describe clinical characteristics of admitted newborns requiring intensive care, to assess the quality of disease management, and to identify factors contributing to neonatal mortality.

METHODS

Prospective observational cohort study of newborns admitted to the hospital between mid-February and mid-March 2019 after birth in other institutions. Data were collected on maternal/prenatal history, delivery, and in-hospital care via convenience sampling. Associations of patient characteristics with in-hospital death were assessed using cause-specific Cox proportional-hazards models.

RESULTS

Half of the 168 admitted newborns underwent postnatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Reasons for admission included respiratory distress (49.4%), poor postnatal adaptation (45.8%), prematurity (46.2%), and infections (37.1%). 101 newborns (61.2%) arrived in serious/critical general condition; 90 children (53.9%) showed clinical signs of neurological damage. Quality of care was poor: Only 59.4% of the 64 newborns admitted with hypothermia were externally heated; likewise, 57.1% of 45 jaundiced infants did not receive phototherapy. Death occurred in 56 children (33.3%) due to birth asphyxia (42.9%), prematurity (33.9%), and sepsis (12.5%). Newborns in serious/critical general condition at admission had about a fivefold higher hazard to die than those admitted in good condition (HR 5.21 95%-CI 2.42-11.25, p = <0.0001). Hypothermia at admission was also associated with a higher hazard of death (HR 2.00, 95%-CI 1.10-3.65, p = 0.023).

CONCLUSION

Neonatal mortality was strikingly high. Birth asphyxia, prematurity, and infection accounted for 89.3% of death, aggravated by poor quality of in-hospital care. Children with serious general condition at admission had poor chances of survival. The whole concept of perinatal care in Guinea requires reconsideration.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Language:English
Date:2021
Deposited On:27 Dec 2021 07:05
Last Modified:27 May 2024 01:46
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1932-6203
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254938
PubMed ID:34460846
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)