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Dangerous liaisons: Bacteria, antimicrobial therapies, and allergic diseases


Abstract

Microbiota composition and associated metabolic activities are essential for the education and development of a healthy immune system. Microbial dysbiosis, caused by risk factors such as diet, birth mode, or early infant antimicrobial therapy, is associated with the inception of allergic diseases. In turn, allergic diseases increase the risk for irrational use of antimicrobial therapy. Microbial therapies, such as probiotics, have been studied in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, but evidence remains limited due to studies with high heterogeneity, strain-dependent effectiveness, and variable outcome measures. In this review, we sketch the relation of microbiota with allergic diseases, the overuse and rationale for the use of antimicrobial agents in allergic diseases, and current knowledge concerning the use of bacterial products in allergic diseases. We urgently recommend 1) limiting antibiotic therapy in pregnancy and early childhood as a method contributing to the reduction of the allergy epidemic in children and 2) restricting antibiotic therapy in exacerbations and chronic treatment of allergic diseases, mainly concerning asthma and atopic dermatitis. Future research should be aimed at antibiotic stewardship implementation strategies and biomarker-guided therapy, discerning those patients that might benefit from antibiotic therapy.

Abstract

Microbiota composition and associated metabolic activities are essential for the education and development of a healthy immune system. Microbial dysbiosis, caused by risk factors such as diet, birth mode, or early infant antimicrobial therapy, is associated with the inception of allergic diseases. In turn, allergic diseases increase the risk for irrational use of antimicrobial therapy. Microbial therapies, such as probiotics, have been studied in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, but evidence remains limited due to studies with high heterogeneity, strain-dependent effectiveness, and variable outcome measures. In this review, we sketch the relation of microbiota with allergic diseases, the overuse and rationale for the use of antimicrobial agents in allergic diseases, and current knowledge concerning the use of bacterial products in allergic diseases. We urgently recommend 1) limiting antibiotic therapy in pregnancy and early childhood as a method contributing to the reduction of the allergy epidemic in children and 2) restricting antibiotic therapy in exacerbations and chronic treatment of allergic diseases, mainly concerning asthma and atopic dermatitis. Future research should be aimed at antibiotic stewardship implementation strategies and biomarker-guided therapy, discerning those patients that might benefit from antibiotic therapy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Immunology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Immunology, Immunology and Allergy
Language:English
Date:1 November 2021
Deposited On:06 Jan 2022 16:57
Last Modified:26 Feb 2024 02:41
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0105-4538
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/all.15046
PubMed ID:34390006