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Cellular and molecular mechanisms of allergic asthma


Komlósi, Zsolt I; van de Veen, Willem; Kovács, Nóra; Szűcs, Gergő; Sokolowska, Milena; O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mubeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A (2022). Cellular and molecular mechanisms of allergic asthma. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 85:100995.

Abstract

Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways, which affects more than 350 million people worldwide. It is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting at least 30 million children and young adults in Europe. Asthma is a complex, partially heritable disease with a marked heterogeneity. Its development is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The most common, as well as the most well characterized subtype of asthma is allergic eosinophilic asthma, which is characterized by a type 2 airway inflammation. The prevalence of asthma has substantially increased in industrialized countries during the last 60 years. The mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are incompletely understood, however increased exposure to various environmental pollutants probably plays a role. Disease inception is thought to be enabled by a disadvantageous shift in the balance between protective and harmful lifestyle and environmental factors, including exposure to protective commensal microbes versus infection with pathogens, collectively leading to airway epithelial cell damage and disrupted barrier integrity. Epithelial cell-derived cytokines are one of the main drivers of the type 2 immune response against innocuous allergens, ultimately leading to infiltration of lung tissue with type 2 T helper (TH2) cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), M2 macrophages and eosinophils. This review outlines the mechanisms responsible for the orchestration of type 2 inflammation and summarizes the novel findings, including but not limited to dysregulated epithelial barrier integrity, alarmin release and innate lymphoid cell stimulation.

Abstract

Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways, which affects more than 350 million people worldwide. It is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting at least 30 million children and young adults in Europe. Asthma is a complex, partially heritable disease with a marked heterogeneity. Its development is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. The most common, as well as the most well characterized subtype of asthma is allergic eosinophilic asthma, which is characterized by a type 2 airway inflammation. The prevalence of asthma has substantially increased in industrialized countries during the last 60 years. The mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are incompletely understood, however increased exposure to various environmental pollutants probably plays a role. Disease inception is thought to be enabled by a disadvantageous shift in the balance between protective and harmful lifestyle and environmental factors, including exposure to protective commensal microbes versus infection with pathogens, collectively leading to airway epithelial cell damage and disrupted barrier integrity. Epithelial cell-derived cytokines are one of the main drivers of the type 2 immune response against innocuous allergens, ultimately leading to infiltration of lung tissue with type 2 T helper (TH2) cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), M2 macrophages and eosinophils. This review outlines the mechanisms responsible for the orchestration of type 2 inflammation and summarizes the novel findings, including but not limited to dysregulated epithelial barrier integrity, alarmin release and innate lymphoid cell stimulation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Life Sciences > Molecular Medicine
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Life Sciences > Clinical Biochemistry
Uncontrolled Keywords:Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Molecular Medicine, General Medicine, Biochemistry
Language:English
Date:1 June 2022
Deposited On:31 Jan 2022 18:55
Last Modified:27 Mar 2024 03:04
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0098-2997
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2021.100995
PubMed ID:34364680
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)