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Light dominates the diurnal emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in wild tobacco


He, Jun; Halitschke, Rayko; Schuman, Meredith Christine; Baldwin, Ian T (2021). Light dominates the diurnal emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in wild tobacco. BMC Plant Biology, 21(1):401.

Abstract

Background
Timing is everything when it comes to the fitness outcome of a plant’s ecological interactions, and accurate timing is particularly relevant for interactions with herbivores or mutualists that are based on ephemeral emissions of volatile organic compounds. Previous studies of the wild tobacco N. attenuata have found associations between the diurnal timing of volatile emissions, and daytime predation of herbivores by their natural enemies.

Results
Here, we investigated the role of light in regulating two biosynthetic groups of volatiles, terpenoids and green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which dominate the herbivore-induced bouquet of N. attenuata. Light deprivation strongly suppressed terpenoid emissions while enhancing GLV emissions, albeit with a time lag. Silencing the expression of photoreceptor genes did not alter terpenoid emission rhythms, but silencing expression of the phytochrome gene, NaPhyB1, disordered the emission of the GLV (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. External abscisic acid (ABA) treatments increased stomatal resistance, but did not truncate the emission of terpenoid volatiles (recovered in the headspace). However, ABA treatment enhanced GLV emissions and leaf internal pools (recovered from tissue), and reduced internal linalool pools. In contrast to the pattern of diurnal terpenoid emissions and nocturnal GLV emissions, transcripts of herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) biosynthetic genes peaked during the day. The promotor regions of these genes were populated with various cis-acting regulatory elements involved in light-, stress-, phytohormone- and circadian regulation.

Conclusions
This research provides insights into the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of HIPV bouquets, a mechanistic complexity which rivals the functional complexity of HIPVs, which includes repelling herbivores, calling for body guards, and attracting pollinators.

Abstract

Background
Timing is everything when it comes to the fitness outcome of a plant’s ecological interactions, and accurate timing is particularly relevant for interactions with herbivores or mutualists that are based on ephemeral emissions of volatile organic compounds. Previous studies of the wild tobacco N. attenuata have found associations between the diurnal timing of volatile emissions, and daytime predation of herbivores by their natural enemies.

Results
Here, we investigated the role of light in regulating two biosynthetic groups of volatiles, terpenoids and green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which dominate the herbivore-induced bouquet of N. attenuata. Light deprivation strongly suppressed terpenoid emissions while enhancing GLV emissions, albeit with a time lag. Silencing the expression of photoreceptor genes did not alter terpenoid emission rhythms, but silencing expression of the phytochrome gene, NaPhyB1, disordered the emission of the GLV (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. External abscisic acid (ABA) treatments increased stomatal resistance, but did not truncate the emission of terpenoid volatiles (recovered in the headspace). However, ABA treatment enhanced GLV emissions and leaf internal pools (recovered from tissue), and reduced internal linalool pools. In contrast to the pattern of diurnal terpenoid emissions and nocturnal GLV emissions, transcripts of herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) biosynthetic genes peaked during the day. The promotor regions of these genes were populated with various cis-acting regulatory elements involved in light-, stress-, phytohormone- and circadian regulation.

Conclusions
This research provides insights into the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of HIPV bouquets, a mechanistic complexity which rivals the functional complexity of HIPVs, which includes repelling herbivores, calling for body guards, and attracting pollinators.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geography
Dewey Decimal Classification:910 Geography & travel
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Plant Science
Uncontrolled Keywords:Plant Science
Language:English
Date:1 December 2021
Deposited On:12 Jan 2022 15:42
Last Modified:27 May 2024 01:48
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2229
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03179-z
Project Information:
  • : FunderMax Planck Institute of Chemical Ecology (MPICE)
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)