Exercise is considered as an important component of the package of care delivered to people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF). However, despite the well-known short-term physiological and psychological benefits, training effects are heterogenous and the transfer of structured exercise programmes to the daily life of pwCF is challenging. Training concepts and strategies developed over the last decades must be adapted to consider the aging population of pwCF with associated comorbidities, and also a new generation of young pwCF that are healthier than ever. In the present review we propose a new framework for optimising the choice among available exercise training procedures and we provide a theoretical and scientifically justified rationale for considering and testing new exercise training modalities. We propose a multidisciplinary approach, considering various physiological, psychological and logistical factors, with the aim to increase effects of exercise training and build positive long-term exercise behaviour.