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Co-Stimulatory Molecules during Immune Control of Epstein Barr Virus Infection


Münz, Christian (2021). Co-Stimulatory Molecules during Immune Control of Epstein Barr Virus Infection. Biomolecules, 12:38.

Abstract

The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is one of the prominent human tumor viruses, and it is efficiently immune-controlled in most virus carriers. Cytotoxic lymphocytes strongly expand during symptomatic primary EBV infection and in preclinical in vivo models of this tumor virus infection. In these models and patients with primary immunodeficiencies, antibody blockade or deficiencies in certain molecular pathways lead to EBV-associated pathologies. In addition to T, NK, and NKT cell development, as well as their cytotoxic machinery, a set of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules was found to be required for EBV-specific immune control. The role of CD27/CD70, 4-1BB, SLAMs, NKG2D, CD16A/CD2, CTLA-4, and PD-1 will be discussed in this review. Some of these have just been recently identified as crucial for EBV-specific immune control, and for others, their important functions during protection were characterized in in vivo models of EBV infection and its immune control. These insights into the phenotype of cytotoxic lymphocytes that mediate the near-perfect immune control of EBV-associated malignancies might also guide immunotherapies against other tumors in the future.

Abstract

The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is one of the prominent human tumor viruses, and it is efficiently immune-controlled in most virus carriers. Cytotoxic lymphocytes strongly expand during symptomatic primary EBV infection and in preclinical in vivo models of this tumor virus infection. In these models and patients with primary immunodeficiencies, antibody blockade or deficiencies in certain molecular pathways lead to EBV-associated pathologies. In addition to T, NK, and NKT cell development, as well as their cytotoxic machinery, a set of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules was found to be required for EBV-specific immune control. The role of CD27/CD70, 4-1BB, SLAMs, NKG2D, CD16A/CD2, CTLA-4, and PD-1 will be discussed in this review. Some of these have just been recently identified as crucial for EBV-specific immune control, and for others, their important functions during protection were characterized in in vivo models of EBV infection and its immune control. These insights into the phenotype of cytotoxic lymphocytes that mediate the near-perfect immune control of EBV-associated malignancies might also guide immunotherapies against other tumors in the future.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Language:English
Date:28 December 2021
Deposited On:28 Jan 2022 13:46
Last Modified:26 Feb 2024 02:45
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:2218-273X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010038
PubMed ID:35053187
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)