Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neurons throughout life in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. With advancing age, levels of neurogenesis sharply drop, which has been associated with a decline in hippocampal memory function. However, cell-intrinsic mechanisms mediating age-related changes in NSC activity remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the nuclear lamina protein lamin B1 (LB1) is downregulated with age in mouse hippocampal NSCs, whereas protein levels of SUN-domain containing protein 1 (SUN1), previously implicated in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), increase. Balancing the levels of LB1 and SUN1 in aged NSCs restores the strength of the endoplasmic reticulum diffusion barrier that is associated with segregation of aging factors in proliferating NSCs. Virus-based restoration of LB1 expression in aged NSCs enhances stem cell activity in vitro and increases progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in vivo. Thus, we here identify a mechanism that mediates age-related decline of neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus.