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Hepatic safety and tolerability of cipargamin (KAE609), in adult patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a randomized, phase II, controlled, dose-escalation trial in sub-Saharan Africa


Ndayisaba, Gilles; Yeka, Adoke; Asante, Kwaku Poku; et al; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Gandhi, Preetam (2021). Hepatic safety and tolerability of cipargamin (KAE609), in adult patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a randomized, phase II, controlled, dose-escalation trial in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria Journal, 20(1):478.

Abstract

Background

The novel anti-malarial cipargamin (KAE609) has potent, rapid activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Transient asymptomatic liver function test elevations were previously observed in cipargamin-treated subjects in two trials: one in malaria patients in Asia and one in volunteers with experimentally induced malaria. In this study, the hepatic safety of cipargamin given as single doses of 10 to 150 mg and 10 to 50 mg once daily for 3 days was assessed. Efficacy results, frequency of treatment-emerging mutations in the atp4 gene and pharmacokinetics have been published elsewhere. Further, the R561H mutation in the k13 gene, which confers artemisinin-resistance, was associated with delayed parasite clearance following treatment with artemether–lumefantrine in Rwanda in this study. This was also the first study with cipargamin to be conducted in patients in sub-Saharan Africa.
Methods

This was a Phase II, multicentre, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation trial in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in five sub-Saharan countries, using artemether–lumefantrine as control. The primary endpoint was ≥ 2 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Grade increase from baseline in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST) during the 4-week trial.
Results

Overall, 2/135 patients treated with cipargamin had ≥ 2 CTCAE Grade increases from baseline in ALT or AST compared to 2/51 artemether–lumefantrine patients, with no significant difference between any cipargamin treatment group and the control group. Cipargamin exposure was comparable to or higher than those in previous studies. Hepatic adverse events and general safety and tolerability were similar for all cipargamin doses and artemether–lumefantrine. Cipargamin was well tolerated with no safety concerns.
Conclusions

This active-controlled, dose escalation study was a detailed assessment of the hepatic safety of cipargamin, across a wide range of doses, in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Comparison with previous cipargamin trials requires caution as no clear conclusion can be drawn as to whether hepatic safety and potential immunity to malaria would differ with ethnicity, patient age and or geography. Previous concerns regarding hepatic safety may have been confounded by factors including malaria itself, whether natural or experimental infection, and should not limit the further development of cipargamin.

Abstract

Background

The novel anti-malarial cipargamin (KAE609) has potent, rapid activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Transient asymptomatic liver function test elevations were previously observed in cipargamin-treated subjects in two trials: one in malaria patients in Asia and one in volunteers with experimentally induced malaria. In this study, the hepatic safety of cipargamin given as single doses of 10 to 150 mg and 10 to 50 mg once daily for 3 days was assessed. Efficacy results, frequency of treatment-emerging mutations in the atp4 gene and pharmacokinetics have been published elsewhere. Further, the R561H mutation in the k13 gene, which confers artemisinin-resistance, was associated with delayed parasite clearance following treatment with artemether–lumefantrine in Rwanda in this study. This was also the first study with cipargamin to be conducted in patients in sub-Saharan Africa.
Methods

This was a Phase II, multicentre, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation trial in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in five sub-Saharan countries, using artemether–lumefantrine as control. The primary endpoint was ≥ 2 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Grade increase from baseline in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST) during the 4-week trial.
Results

Overall, 2/135 patients treated with cipargamin had ≥ 2 CTCAE Grade increases from baseline in ALT or AST compared to 2/51 artemether–lumefantrine patients, with no significant difference between any cipargamin treatment group and the control group. Cipargamin exposure was comparable to or higher than those in previous studies. Hepatic adverse events and general safety and tolerability were similar for all cipargamin doses and artemether–lumefantrine. Cipargamin was well tolerated with no safety concerns.
Conclusions

This active-controlled, dose escalation study was a detailed assessment of the hepatic safety of cipargamin, across a wide range of doses, in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Comparison with previous cipargamin trials requires caution as no clear conclusion can be drawn as to whether hepatic safety and potential immunity to malaria would differ with ethnicity, patient age and or geography. Previous concerns regarding hepatic safety may have been confounded by factors including malaria itself, whether natural or experimental infection, and should not limit the further development of cipargamin.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Parasitology
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:Infectious Diseases, Parasitology
Language:English
Date:1 December 2021
Deposited On:31 Jan 2022 18:21
Last Modified:26 Jun 2024 01:51
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1475-2875
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-04009-1
PubMed ID:34930267
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
  • Content: Accepted Version