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Association between the magnitude of intravenous busulfan exposure and development of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in children and young adults undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation


Bognàr, Tim; Bartelink, Imke H; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A; Versluys, A Birgitta; et al; Güngör, Tayfun (2022). Association between the magnitude of intravenous busulfan exposure and development of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in children and young adults undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, 28(4):196-202.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Intravenous busulfan is widely used as part of myeloablative conditioning regimens in children and young adults undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a serious clinical problem observed with busulfan-based conditioning HCT. The development of VOD/SOS may be associated with busulfan exposure. Getting more insight in the association between busulfan exposure and the development of VOD/SOS enables further optimization of dosing and treatment strategies.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to assess the association between the magnitude of busulfan exposure and the occurrence of VOD/SOS in children and young adults undergoing myeloablative conditioning with a busulfan-containing regimen prior to allogeneic HCT.

STUDY DESIGN

In this observational study we included all patients who received an allogeneic HCT with intravenous busulfan as part of the conditioning regimen at 15 pediatric transplantation centers between 2000 and 2015. The endpoint was the development of VOD/SOS. The magnitude of busulfan exposure was estimated using non-linear mixed effect modelling and expressed as the maximal concentration (Cmax; day 1 and day 1-4 Cmax), cumulative area under the curve (AUC; day 1, highest 1-day AUC in 4 days, and 4-day cumulative AUC), cumulative time above a concentration of 300 µg/L, and clearance on day 1.

RESULTS

A total of 88 out of 697 patients (12.6%) developed VOD/SOS. The number of alkylators in the conditioning regimen was a strong effect modifier, therefore, we stratified the regression analysis for the number of alkylators. For patients receiving only busulfan as one alkylator (36.3%, n = 253), cumulative busulfan exposure (>78 mg*h/L) was associated with increased VOD/SOS risk (12.6% vs. 4.7%; odds ratio (OR) = 2.95, 95% CI 1.13-7.66). For individuals receiving busulfan with one or two additional alkylators (63.7%, n = 444), cumulative busulfan exposure (≤78 and >78 mg*h/L) did not further increase the risk of VOD/SOS (15.4% vs. 15.2%; OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.61-1.75).

CONCLUSION

The effect of the magnitude of busulfan exposure on VOD/SOS risk in children and young adults undergoing HCT is dependent on the number of alkylators. In patients receiving busulfan as the only alkylator, higher cumulative busulfan exposure increased the risk of VOD/SOS, whereas in those receiving multiple alkylators, the magnitude of busulfan exposure did not further increase this risk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Intravenous busulfan is widely used as part of myeloablative conditioning regimens in children and young adults undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a serious clinical problem observed with busulfan-based conditioning HCT. The development of VOD/SOS may be associated with busulfan exposure. Getting more insight in the association between busulfan exposure and the development of VOD/SOS enables further optimization of dosing and treatment strategies.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to assess the association between the magnitude of busulfan exposure and the occurrence of VOD/SOS in children and young adults undergoing myeloablative conditioning with a busulfan-containing regimen prior to allogeneic HCT.

STUDY DESIGN

In this observational study we included all patients who received an allogeneic HCT with intravenous busulfan as part of the conditioning regimen at 15 pediatric transplantation centers between 2000 and 2015. The endpoint was the development of VOD/SOS. The magnitude of busulfan exposure was estimated using non-linear mixed effect modelling and expressed as the maximal concentration (Cmax; day 1 and day 1-4 Cmax), cumulative area under the curve (AUC; day 1, highest 1-day AUC in 4 days, and 4-day cumulative AUC), cumulative time above a concentration of 300 µg/L, and clearance on day 1.

RESULTS

A total of 88 out of 697 patients (12.6%) developed VOD/SOS. The number of alkylators in the conditioning regimen was a strong effect modifier, therefore, we stratified the regression analysis for the number of alkylators. For patients receiving only busulfan as one alkylator (36.3%, n = 253), cumulative busulfan exposure (>78 mg*h/L) was associated with increased VOD/SOS risk (12.6% vs. 4.7%; odds ratio (OR) = 2.95, 95% CI 1.13-7.66). For individuals receiving busulfan with one or two additional alkylators (63.7%, n = 444), cumulative busulfan exposure (≤78 and >78 mg*h/L) did not further increase the risk of VOD/SOS (15.4% vs. 15.2%; OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.61-1.75).

CONCLUSION

The effect of the magnitude of busulfan exposure on VOD/SOS risk in children and young adults undergoing HCT is dependent on the number of alkylators. In patients receiving busulfan as the only alkylator, higher cumulative busulfan exposure increased the risk of VOD/SOS, whereas in those receiving multiple alkylators, the magnitude of busulfan exposure did not further increase this risk.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Hematology
Health Sciences > Transplantation
Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Life Sciences > Molecular Medicine
Language:German
Date:1 April 2022
Deposited On:29 Mar 2022 12:00
Last Modified:26 Feb 2024 02:46
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2666-6367
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2022.01.013
PubMed ID:35065280
  • Content: Published Version
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)