The natural connection between the duodenum and the pancreatic duct enables a minimally invasive access to the pancreas. Endoscopically this access is already regularly used, mainly for diagnostic and even for certain therapeutic purposes. With per-oral pancreatoscopy the endopancreatic approach allows the direct visualization of the pancreatic duct system potentially improving the diagnostic work-up of pancreatic cystic neoplasms, intrapancreatic strictures and removal of pancreatic duct stones. However, the endopancreatic access can equally be applied for surgical interventions. The objective of this review is to summarize endoscopic and surgical interventions using the endopancreatic access. Endopancreatic surgery stands for a further development of the endoscopic technique: a rigid endoscope is transabdominally introduced over the duodenum and the papilla to enable resections of strictures and inflamed tissue from inside the pancreas under visual control. While the orientation and localization of target structures using this minimally invasive approach is difficult, the development of an accurate image guidance system will play a key role for the clinical implementation and widespread use of endoscopic and surgical endopancreatic interventions.