Understanding the function of surface states on photoanodes is crucial for unraveling the underlying reaction mechanisms of water oxidation. For hematite photoanodes, only one type of surface states with higher oxidative energy (S1) has been proposed and verified as reaction intermediate, while the other surface state located at lower potentials (S2) was assigned to inactive or recombination sites. Through employing rate law analyses and systematical (photo)electrochemical characterizations, here we show that S2 is an active reaction intermediate for water oxidation as well. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reaction kinetics and dynamic interactions of both S1 and S2 depend significantly on operational parameters, such as illumination intensity, nature of the electrolyte, and applied potential. These insights into the individual reaction kinetics and the interplay of both surface states are decisive for designing efficient photoanodes.