Infections with Mycobacterium microti, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, have been increasingly reported in humans and in domestic and free-ranging wild animals. At postmortem examination, infected animals may display histopathologic lesions indistinguishable from those caused by M. bovis or M. caprae, potentially leading to misidentification of bovine tuberculosis. We report 3 cases of M. microti infections in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) from western Austria and southern Germany. One diseased animal displayed severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and multifocal granulomas on the surface of the pericardium. Two other animals showed alterations of the lungs and associated lymph nodes compatible with parasitic infestation. Results of the phylogenetic analysis including multiple animal strains from the study area showed independent infection events, but no host-adapted genotype. Personnel involved in bovine tuberculosis–monitoring programs should be aware of the fastidious nature of M. microti, its pathogenicity in wildlife, and zoonotic potential.