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The role of cholesterol recognition (CARC/CRAC) mirror codes in the allosterism of the human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, SLC22A2)


Sutter, Morena Leandra. The role of cholesterol recognition (CARC/CRAC) mirror codes in the allosterism of the human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, SLC22A2). 2022, University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine.

Abstract

The human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is a multispecific transporter with cholesterol-dependent allosteric features. The present work elucidates the role of evolutionarily conserved cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus sequences (CRAC and CARC) in the allosteric binding to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably or transiently expressing OCT2. Molecular blind simulations docked two mirroring cholesterol molecules in the 5th putative transmembrane domain, where a CARC and a CRAC sequence lie. The impact of the conserved amino acids that may constitute the CARC/CRAC mirror code was studied by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. At a saturating extracellular concentration of substrate, at which the impact of cholesterol depletion is maximal, five mutants transported MPP+ at a significantly lower rate than the wild-type OCT2 (WT), resembling the behavior of the WT upon cholesterol depletion. MPP+ influx rate as a function of the extracellular concentration of substrate was measured for the mutants R234A, R235A, L252A and R263A. R234A kinetic behavior was similar to that of the WT, whereas R235A, L252A and R263A activity shifted from allosteric to one-binding site kinetics, very much like the WT upon cholesterol depletion. The impact of cholesterol on protein thermal stability was assessed for WT, R234A and R263A. While the thermal stability of WT and R234A was improved by the supplementation with cholesterol, R263A was not sensitive to the presence of cholesterol. To conclude, the disruption of the CARC/CRAC mirror code in the 5th putative transmembrane domain is sufficient to abolish the allosteric interaction between OCT2 and MPP+.

Abstract

The human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is a multispecific transporter with cholesterol-dependent allosteric features. The present work elucidates the role of evolutionarily conserved cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus sequences (CRAC and CARC) in the allosteric binding to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably or transiently expressing OCT2. Molecular blind simulations docked two mirroring cholesterol molecules in the 5th putative transmembrane domain, where a CARC and a CRAC sequence lie. The impact of the conserved amino acids that may constitute the CARC/CRAC mirror code was studied by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. At a saturating extracellular concentration of substrate, at which the impact of cholesterol depletion is maximal, five mutants transported MPP+ at a significantly lower rate than the wild-type OCT2 (WT), resembling the behavior of the WT upon cholesterol depletion. MPP+ influx rate as a function of the extracellular concentration of substrate was measured for the mutants R234A, R235A, L252A and R263A. R234A kinetic behavior was similar to that of the WT, whereas R235A, L252A and R263A activity shifted from allosteric to one-binding site kinetics, very much like the WT upon cholesterol depletion. The impact of cholesterol on protein thermal stability was assessed for WT, R234A and R263A. While the thermal stability of WT and R234A was improved by the supplementation with cholesterol, R263A was not sensitive to the presence of cholesterol. To conclude, the disruption of the CARC/CRAC mirror code in the 5th putative transmembrane domain is sufficient to abolish the allosteric interaction between OCT2 and MPP+.

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Item Type:Dissertation (monographical)
Referees:Kullak-Ublick Gerd A, Visentin Michele
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2022
Deposited On:29 Mar 2022 11:20
Last Modified:30 Mar 2022 03:28
OA Status:Green
Related URLs:https://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/214183/
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2021.114840
  • Content: Published Version