Animal models of Alzheimer's disease amyloidosis that recapitulate cerebral amyloid-beta pathology have been widely used in preclinical research and have greatly enabled the mechanistic understanding of Alzheimer's disease and the development of therapeutics. Comprehensive deep phenotyping of the pathophysiological and biochemical features in these animal models is essential. Recent advances in positron emission tomography have allowed the non-invasive visualization of the alterations in the brain of animal models and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. These tools have facilitated our understanding of disease mechanisms and provided longitudinal monitoring of treatment effects in animal models of Alzheimer's disease amyloidosis. In this review, we focus on recent positron emission tomography studies of cerebral amyloid-beta accumulation, hypoglucose metabolism, synaptic and neurotransmitter receptor deficits (cholinergic and glutamatergic system), blood-brain barrier impairment, and neuroinflammation (microgliosis and astrocytosis) in animal models of Alzheimer's disease amyloidosis. We further propose the emerging targets and tracers for reflecting the pathophysiological changes and discuss outstanding challenges in disease animal models and future outlook in the on-chip characterization of imaging biomarkers towards clinical translation.