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STK11 Prevents Invasion through Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3/5 and FAK Repression in Cutaneous Melanoma


Dzung, Andreas; Saltari, Annalisa; Tiso, Natascia; Lyck, Ruth; Dummer, Reinhard; Levesque, Mitchell P (2022). STK11 Prevents Invasion through Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3/5 and FAK Repression in Cutaneous Melanoma. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 142(4):1171-1182.e10.

Abstract

The STK11/LKB1 is a tumor suppressor involved in metabolism and cell motility. In BRAF$^{V600E}$ melanoma, STK11 is inactivated by extracellular signal‒regulated kinase and RSK, preventing it from binding and activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and promoting melanoma cell proliferation. Although STK11 mutations occur in 5‒10% of cutaneous melanoma, few functional studies have been performed. By knocking out STK11 with CRISPR/Cas9 in two human BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines, we found that STK11 loss reduced the sensitivity to a BRAF inhibitor. More strikingly, STK11 loss led to an increased invasive phenotype in both three-dimensional spheroids and in vivo zebrafish xenograft models. STK11 overexpression consistently reversed the invasive phenotype. Interestingly, STK11 knockout increased invasion also in an NRAS-mutant melanoma cell line. Furthermore, although STK11 was expressed in primary human melanoma tumors, its expression significantly decreased in melanoma metastases, especially in brain metastases. In the STK11-knockout cells, we observed increased activating phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5 and FAK. Using inhibitors of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5 and FAK, we reversed the invasive phenotype in both BRAF- and NRAS-mutated cells. Our findings confirm an increased invasive phenotype on STK11 inactivation in BRAF- and NRAS-mutant cutaneous melanoma that can be targeted by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5 and FAK inhibition.

Abstract

The STK11/LKB1 is a tumor suppressor involved in metabolism and cell motility. In BRAF$^{V600E}$ melanoma, STK11 is inactivated by extracellular signal‒regulated kinase and RSK, preventing it from binding and activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and promoting melanoma cell proliferation. Although STK11 mutations occur in 5‒10% of cutaneous melanoma, few functional studies have been performed. By knocking out STK11 with CRISPR/Cas9 in two human BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines, we found that STK11 loss reduced the sensitivity to a BRAF inhibitor. More strikingly, STK11 loss led to an increased invasive phenotype in both three-dimensional spheroids and in vivo zebrafish xenograft models. STK11 overexpression consistently reversed the invasive phenotype. Interestingly, STK11 knockout increased invasion also in an NRAS-mutant melanoma cell line. Furthermore, although STK11 was expressed in primary human melanoma tumors, its expression significantly decreased in melanoma metastases, especially in brain metastases. In the STK11-knockout cells, we observed increased activating phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5 and FAK. Using inhibitors of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5 and FAK, we reversed the invasive phenotype in both BRAF- and NRAS-mutated cells. Our findings confirm an increased invasive phenotype on STK11 inactivation in BRAF- and NRAS-mutant cutaneous melanoma that can be targeted by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5 and FAK inhibition.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Life Sciences > Molecular Biology
Health Sciences > Dermatology
Life Sciences > Cell Biology
Language:English
Date:April 2022
Deposited On:26 Apr 2022 14:16
Last Modified:27 Jun 2024 01:37
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0022-202X
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2021.09.035
PubMed ID:34757069