Amylin (also called islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP)) is a pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with insulin in response to nutrient stimuli. The last 35 years of intensive research have shown that amylin exerts important physiological effects on metabolic control. Most importantly, amylin is a physiological control of meal-ending satiation, and it limits the rate of gastric emptying and reduces the secretion of pancreatic glucagon, in particular in postprandial states. The physiological effects of amylin and its analogs are mediated by direct brain activation, with the caudal hindbrain playing the most prominent role. The clarification of the structure of amylin receptors, consisting of the calcitonin core receptor plus receptor-activity modifying proteins, aided in the development of amylin analogs with a broad pharmacological profile. The general interest in amylin physiology and pharmacology was boosted by the finding that amylin is a sensitizer to the catabolic actions of leptin. Today, amylin derived analogs are considered to be among the most promising approaches for the pharmacotherapy against obesity. At least in conjunction with insulin, amylin analogs are also considered important treatment options in diabetic patients, so that new drugs may soon be added to the only currently approved compound pramlintide (Symlin®). This review provides a brief summary of the physiology of amylin’s mode of actions and its role in the control of the metabolism, in particular energy intake and glucose metabolism.