Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) have been observed queueing up in natural environments to rub particular body parts against selected corals (Rumphella aggregata, Sarcophyton sp.) and sponges (Ircinia sp.) in the Egyptian Northern Red Sea. It was hypothesized that the presence of bioactive metabolites accounts for this selective rubbing behavior. The three invertebrates preferentially accessed by the dolphins, collected and analyzed by hyphenated high-performance thin-layer chromatography contained seventeen active metabolites, providing evidence of potential self-medication. Repeated rubbing allows these active metabolites to come into contact with the skin of the dolphins, which in turn could help them achieve skin homeostasis and be useful for prophylaxis or auxiliary treatment against microbial infections. This interdisciplinary research in behavior, separation science, and effect-directed analysis highlighted the importance of particular invertebrates in coral reefs, the urgent need to protect coral reefs for dolphins and other species, and calls for further vertebrate-invertebrate interaction studies.