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Conditioned Hallucinations and Prior Overweighting Are State-Sensitive Markers of Hallucination Susceptibility


Kafadar, Eren; Fisher, Victoria L; Quagan, Brittany; Hammer, Allison; Jaeger, Hale; Mourgues, Catalina; Thomas, Rigi; Chen, Linda; Imtiaz, Ayyub; Sibarium, Ely; Negreira, Alyson M; Sarisik, Elif; Polisetty, Vasishta; Benrimoh, David; Sheldon, Andrew D; Lim, Chris; Mathys, Christoph; Powers, Albert R (2022). Conditioned Hallucinations and Prior Overweighting Are State-Sensitive Markers of Hallucination Susceptibility. Biological Psychiatry, 92(10):772-780.

Abstract

Background
Recent advances in computational psychiatry have identified latent cognitive and perceptual states that predispose to psychotic symptoms. Behavioral data fit to Bayesian models have demonstrated an overreliance on priors (i.e., prior overweighting) during perception in select samples of individuals with hallucinations, corresponding to increased precision of prior expectations over incoming sensory evidence. However, the clinical utility of this observation depends on the extent to which it reflects static symptom risk or current symptom state.
Methods
To determine whether task performance and estimated prior weighting relate to specific elements of symptom expression, a large, heterogeneous, and deeply phenotyped sample of hallucinators (n = 249) and nonhallucinators (n = 209) performed the conditioned hallucination (CH) task.
Results
We found that CH rates predicted stable measures of hallucination status (i.e., peak frequency). However, CH rates were more sensitive to hallucination state (i.e., recent frequency), significantly correlating with recent hallucination severity and driven by heightened reliance on past experiences (priors). To further test the sensitivity of CH rate and prior weighting to symptom severity, a subset of participants with hallucinations (n = 40) performed a repeated-measures version of the CH task. Changes in both CH frequency and prior weighting varied with changes in auditory hallucination frequency on follow-up.
Conclusions
These results indicate that CH rate and prior overweighting are state markers of hallucination status, potentially useful in tracking disease development and treatment response.

Abstract

Background
Recent advances in computational psychiatry have identified latent cognitive and perceptual states that predispose to psychotic symptoms. Behavioral data fit to Bayesian models have demonstrated an overreliance on priors (i.e., prior overweighting) during perception in select samples of individuals with hallucinations, corresponding to increased precision of prior expectations over incoming sensory evidence. However, the clinical utility of this observation depends on the extent to which it reflects static symptom risk or current symptom state.
Methods
To determine whether task performance and estimated prior weighting relate to specific elements of symptom expression, a large, heterogeneous, and deeply phenotyped sample of hallucinators (n = 249) and nonhallucinators (n = 209) performed the conditioned hallucination (CH) task.
Results
We found that CH rates predicted stable measures of hallucination status (i.e., peak frequency). However, CH rates were more sensitive to hallucination state (i.e., recent frequency), significantly correlating with recent hallucination severity and driven by heightened reliance on past experiences (priors). To further test the sensitivity of CH rate and prior weighting to symptom severity, a subset of participants with hallucinations (n = 40) performed a repeated-measures version of the CH task. Changes in both CH frequency and prior weighting varied with changes in auditory hallucination frequency on follow-up.
Conclusions
These results indicate that CH rate and prior overweighting are state markers of hallucination status, potentially useful in tracking disease development and treatment response.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Biomedical Engineering
Dewey Decimal Classification:170 Ethics
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biological Psychiatry
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biological Psychiatry
Language:English
Date:1 May 2022
Deposited On:09 Nov 2022 14:30
Last Modified:27 Jun 2024 01:39
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0006-3223
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.05.007
PubMed ID:35843743