Increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) due to stress have been shown to result in enhanced consolidation and impaired retrieval of memory in humans. Several studies have shown that participants may be categorized as high and low responders with regard to GC levels elicited by stress. In the current study, we studied the differential effects of acute psychosocial stress on declarative memory processes in high and low responders. Twenty male participants were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a rest condition, and they completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Results show that there was no general effect of psychosocial stress on declarative memory processes. However, high cortisol responders displayed better immediate free recall after being exposed to stress. Findings are discussed in the context of possible positive relations of stress and declarative memory performance.