Opportunistic pathogens belonging to the genus Legionella are among the most reported waterborne-associated pathogens in industrialized countries. Legionella colonize a variety of engineered aquatic ecosystems and persist in biofilms where they interact with a multitude of other resident microorganisms. In this review, we assess how some of these interactions could be used to develop a biological-driven "probiotic" control approach against Legionella. We focus on: (i) mechanisms limiting the ability of Legionella to establish and replicate within some of their natural protozoan hosts; (ii) exploitative and interference competitive interactions between Legionella and other microorganisms; and (iii) the potential of predatory bacteria and phages against Legionella. This field is still emergent, and we therefore specifically highlight research for future investigations, and propose perspectives on the feasibility and public acceptance of a potential probiotic approach.
Keywords: Legionella; antagonism; biofilm; competition; pathogen–host interaction; predation; probiotics; protozoa.