Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative treatment approach for certain benign and malignant hematologic diseases. The actual HSCT is preceded by a conditioning therapy that reduces host-vs-HSCT graft rejection and creates niche space for transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Conditioning consists of chemotherapy with or without irradiation and is a major cause of side effects in HSCT. However, reduction of the intensity of cytotoxic conditioning leads to higher rates of engraftment failure and increased rates of relapse. We here tested if the addition of an HSC cycling inducing agent during conditioning allows to diminish the dose of conditioning drugs without reducing subsequent transplanted HSC engraftment in a mouse HSCT model. The thrombopoietin receptor agonist romiplostim was shown to induce cell cycling activity in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We thus tested if the addition of romiplostim to the clinically applied conditioning chemotherapy regimen cyclophosphamide and busulfan leads to increased efficacy of the chemotherapeutic regimen. We found that romiplostim not only sensitizes HSCs to chemotherapy but also enables a reduction of the main chemotherapeutic component busulfan by half while HSC engraftment levels are maintained in long-term, serial transplantation assays.