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The Winner Takes It All: Carbon Supersedes Hexagonal Boron Nitride with Graphene on Transition Metals at High Temperatures


Hemmi, Adrian; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Greber, Thomas; Cun, Huanyao (2022). The Winner Takes It All: Carbon Supersedes Hexagonal Boron Nitride with Graphene on Transition Metals at High Temperatures. Small, 18(49):2205184.

Abstract

The production of high-quality hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is essential for the ultimate performance of 2D materials-based devices, since it is the key 2D encapsulation material. Here, a decisive guideline is reported for fabricating high-quality h-BN on transition metals. It is crucial to exclude carbon from the h-BN related process, otherwise carbon prevails over boron and nitrogen due to its larger binding energy, thereupon forming graphene on metals after high-temperature annealing. The surface reaction-assisted conversion from h-BN to graphene with high-temperature treatments is demonstrated. The pyrolysis temperature Tp is an important quality indicator for h-BN/metals. When the temperature is lower than Tp, the quality of the h-BN layer is improved upon annealing. While the annealing temperature is above Tp, in case of carbon-free conditions, the h-BN disintegrates and nitrogen desorbs from the surface more easily than boron, eventually leading to clean metal surfaces. However, once the h-BN layer is exposed to carbon, graphene forms on Pt(111) in the high-temperature regime. This not only provides an indispensable principle (avoid carbon) for fabricating high-quality h-BN materials on transition metals, but also offers a straightforward method for the surface reaction-assisted conversion from h-BN to graphene on Pt(111).

Abstract

The production of high-quality hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is essential for the ultimate performance of 2D materials-based devices, since it is the key 2D encapsulation material. Here, a decisive guideline is reported for fabricating high-quality h-BN on transition metals. It is crucial to exclude carbon from the h-BN related process, otherwise carbon prevails over boron and nitrogen due to its larger binding energy, thereupon forming graphene on metals after high-temperature annealing. The surface reaction-assisted conversion from h-BN to graphene with high-temperature treatments is demonstrated. The pyrolysis temperature Tp is an important quality indicator for h-BN/metals. When the temperature is lower than Tp, the quality of the h-BN layer is improved upon annealing. While the annealing temperature is above Tp, in case of carbon-free conditions, the h-BN disintegrates and nitrogen desorbs from the surface more easily than boron, eventually leading to clean metal surfaces. However, once the h-BN layer is exposed to carbon, graphene forms on Pt(111) in the high-temperature regime. This not only provides an indispensable principle (avoid carbon) for fabricating high-quality h-BN materials on transition metals, but also offers a straightforward method for the surface reaction-assisted conversion from h-BN to graphene on Pt(111).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biomaterials, Biotechnology, General Materials Science, General Chemistry
Language:English
Date:1 December 2022
Deposited On:03 Nov 2022 15:29
Last Modified:27 Jun 2024 01:40
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1613-6810
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202205184
PubMed ID:36319466
  • Content: Accepted Version
  • Content: Accepted Version