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Deleterious, protein-altering variants in the X-linked transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3 in 22 individuals with a neurodevelopmental delay phenotype


Hiatt, Susan M; Trajkova, Slavica; Sebastiano, Matteo Rossi; Partridge, E Christopher; et al; Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra; Rauch, Anita (2022). Deleterious, protein-altering variants in the X-linked transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3 in 22 individuals with a neurodevelopmental delay phenotype. medRxiv 22279724, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) often result from highly penetrant variation in one of many genes, including genes not yet characterized. Using the MatchMaker Exchange, we assembled a cohort of 22 individuals with rare, protein-altering variation in the X-linked transcriptional coregulator gene ZMYM3. Most (n=19) individuals were males; 15 males had maternally-inherited alleles, three of the variants in males arose de novo, and one had unknown inheritance. Overlapping features included developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and a specific facial gestalt in a subset of males. Variants in almost all individuals (n=21) are missense, two of which are recurrent. Three unrelated males were identified with inherited variation at R441, a site at which variation has been previously reported in NDD-affected males, and two individuals have de novo variation at R1294. All variants affect evolutionarily conserved sites, and most are predicted to damage protein structure or function. ZMYM3 is relatively intolerant to variation in the general population, is highly expressed in the brain, and encodes a component of the KDM1A-RCOR1 chromatin-modifying complex. ChIP-seq experiments on one mutant, ZMYM3R1274W, indicate dramatically reduced genomic occupancy, supporting a hypomorphic effect. While we are unable to perform statistical evaluations to support a conclusive causative role for variation in ZMYM3 in disease, the totality of the evidence, including the presence of recurrent variation, overlapping phenotypic features, protein-modeling data, evolutionary constraint, and experimentally-confirmed functional effects, strongly supports ZMYM3 as a novel NDD gene.

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) often result from highly penetrant variation in one of many genes, including genes not yet characterized. Using the MatchMaker Exchange, we assembled a cohort of 22 individuals with rare, protein-altering variation in the X-linked transcriptional coregulator gene ZMYM3. Most (n=19) individuals were males; 15 males had maternally-inherited alleles, three of the variants in males arose de novo, and one had unknown inheritance. Overlapping features included developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and a specific facial gestalt in a subset of males. Variants in almost all individuals (n=21) are missense, two of which are recurrent. Three unrelated males were identified with inherited variation at R441, a site at which variation has been previously reported in NDD-affected males, and two individuals have de novo variation at R1294. All variants affect evolutionarily conserved sites, and most are predicted to damage protein structure or function. ZMYM3 is relatively intolerant to variation in the general population, is highly expressed in the brain, and encodes a component of the KDM1A-RCOR1 chromatin-modifying complex. ChIP-seq experiments on one mutant, ZMYM3R1274W, indicate dramatically reduced genomic occupancy, supporting a hypomorphic effect. While we are unable to perform statistical evaluations to support a conclusive causative role for variation in ZMYM3 in disease, the totality of the evidence, including the presence of recurrent variation, overlapping phenotypic features, protein-modeling data, evolutionary constraint, and experimentally-confirmed functional effects, strongly supports ZMYM3 as a novel NDD gene.

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Item Type:Working Paper
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:ZMYM3, X-linked intellectual disability, neurodevelopmental disorder; transcriptional coregulators, chromatin modifiers
Language:English
Date:30 September 2022
Deposited On:04 Nov 2022 12:45
Last Modified:22 Sep 2023 12:29
Series Name:medRxiv
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.09.29.22279724
  • Content: Published Version
  • Language: English
  • Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)