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The role of different patterns of psychomotor symptoms in major depressive episode: Pooled analysis of the BRIDGE and BRIDGE-II-MIX cohorts


Barbuti, Margherita; Mainardi, Cecilia; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Verdolini, Norma; Maccariello, Giuseppe; Angst, Jules; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Young, Allan H; Vieta, Eduard; Perugi, Giulio (2019). The role of different patterns of psychomotor symptoms in major depressive episode: Pooled analysis of the BRIDGE and BRIDGE-II-MIX cohorts. Bipolar disorders, 21(8):785-793.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Psychomotor agitation (PA) or retardation (PR) during major depressive episodes (MDEs) have been associated with depression severity in terms of treatment-resistance and course of illness.

OBJECTIVES

We investigated the possible association of psychomotor symptoms (PMSs) during a MDE with clinical features belonging to the bipolar spectrum.

METHODS

The initial sample of 7689 MDE patients was divided into three subgroups based on the presence of PR, PA and non-psychomotor symptom (NPS). Univariate comparisons and multivariate logistic regression models were performed between subgroups.

RESULTS

A total of 3720 patients presented PR (48%), 1971 showed PA (26%) and 1998 had NPS (26%). In the PR and PA subgroups, the clinical characteristics related to bipolarity, along with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), were significantly more frequent than in the NPS subgroup. When comparing PA and PR patients, the former presented higher rates of bipolar spectrum features, such as family history of BD (OR = 1.39, CI = 1.20-1.61), manic/hypomanic switches with antidepressants (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.11-1.48), early onset of first MDE (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.26-1.57), atypical (OR = 1.23, CI = 1.07-1.42) and psychotic features (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.78-2.44), treatment with mood-stabilizers (OR = 1.39, CI = 1.24-1.55), as well as a BD diagnosis according to both the DSM-IV criteria and the bipolar specifier criteria. When logistic regression model was performed, the clinical features that significantly differentiated PA from PR were early onset of first MDE, atypical and psychotic features, treatment with mood-stabilizers and a BD diagnosis according to the bipolar specifier criteria.

CONCLUSIONS

Psychomotor symptoms could be considered as markers of bipolarity, illness severity, and treatment complexity, particularly if PA is present.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Psychomotor agitation (PA) or retardation (PR) during major depressive episodes (MDEs) have been associated with depression severity in terms of treatment-resistance and course of illness.

OBJECTIVES

We investigated the possible association of psychomotor symptoms (PMSs) during a MDE with clinical features belonging to the bipolar spectrum.

METHODS

The initial sample of 7689 MDE patients was divided into three subgroups based on the presence of PR, PA and non-psychomotor symptom (NPS). Univariate comparisons and multivariate logistic regression models were performed between subgroups.

RESULTS

A total of 3720 patients presented PR (48%), 1971 showed PA (26%) and 1998 had NPS (26%). In the PR and PA subgroups, the clinical characteristics related to bipolarity, along with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), were significantly more frequent than in the NPS subgroup. When comparing PA and PR patients, the former presented higher rates of bipolar spectrum features, such as family history of BD (OR = 1.39, CI = 1.20-1.61), manic/hypomanic switches with antidepressants (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.11-1.48), early onset of first MDE (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.26-1.57), atypical (OR = 1.23, CI = 1.07-1.42) and psychotic features (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.78-2.44), treatment with mood-stabilizers (OR = 1.39, CI = 1.24-1.55), as well as a BD diagnosis according to both the DSM-IV criteria and the bipolar specifier criteria. When logistic regression model was performed, the clinical features that significantly differentiated PA from PR were early onset of first MDE, atypical and psychotic features, treatment with mood-stabilizers and a BD diagnosis according to the bipolar specifier criteria.

CONCLUSIONS

Psychomotor symptoms could be considered as markers of bipolarity, illness severity, and treatment complexity, particularly if PA is present.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Psychiatry and Mental Health
Life Sciences > Biological Psychiatry
Language:English
Date:December 2019
Deposited On:11 Nov 2022 10:03
Last Modified:27 Jun 2024 01:41
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1398-5647
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/bdi.12816
PubMed ID:31400256
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